Monday, October 22, 2012

frankenstein

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Ben Ansley

English 6

March 10 00

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein can be viewed as the twisted and tragic story of a grueling monster that is nothing but an outcast and threat to society, while the creator Victor Frankenstein cowardly runs from his own selfish mistake. Many look at the gigantic creature as a symbol of evil through out the novel, and even describes his own self as a hideous monster. Some may look at him as something that cares only to destroy human life. However, when studying and understanding his point of view is evidence to me may even leave him the victim. My two prime suspects are Victor Frankenstein and society as a whole. They are to blame for all the evil that is portrayed in the monsters actions.

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After creating such an unusual and unique character, Victor takes no responsibility for it. The monster is completely helpless and has only a small idea about his identity. Unlike God and most parents Dr. Frankenstein brought it into the world with a spark and taught it nothing about survival or the difference between right and wrong. This leaves him very confused when experiencing internal feelings and gives him no choice but to act upon those feelings naturally. With a primitive and uneducated mindset the monster begins to interact with society. His horrid appearance and enormous size, its rejection from society, and the abandonment by his only creator and guardian whom is also disgusted by its looks; hurts the monster deeply and it begins to get very lonely and miserable. At this point he also begins to feel anger towards Victor. He says here, “ Unfeeling, heartless creator! you had endowed me with perceptions and passions, and then cast me abroad an object for the scorn and horror of mankind.”(Page 84) After looking in the mirror he realizes how ugly he is and is disgusted at his own image. Thus far, he has only one link to the world, which is Dr. Frankenstein.





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First Confession

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First Confession



In the short story, First Confession, by Frank O’Connor, the main character, a little boy, named Jackie is troubled with the idea of making his first confession to a priest in the Catholic church. Jackie is troubled because of the religious confusion he has stemming from how he is being taught about his first confession and the actions of his sister. The theme of the story is religious hypocrisy which is seen in the instruction of Mrs. Ryan, Jackie’s religious instructor and Jackie’s personal relationship with his sister.

First of all, the theme of religious hypocrisy is supported by Mrs. Ryan’s “hellfire and brimstone” teaching methods. Mrs. Hale is an older women who is teaching Jackie and his classmates, who are around the age of 7 or 8, about there first confession and how to go about doing it. Mrs. Ryan uses the technique of discussing the punishment of sin rather then the rewards of confession, which confusing young Jackie. Jackie is told a story about a man who lied or left out some sins in his confession and God kills him at a priest house one night and the man leaves burn marks on the priest furniture. This frightens Jackie and he worries about the punishment of sin rather then the glorious moment of confession between him and God. He is also confused because Mrs. Ryan talked to them more on hell then she did heaven. “ She may have mentioned the other place as well, but that could only have been by accident, for hell had the first place in her heart” (paragraph 4) The confusion sets in because instead of the positives of religion, the negatives were being taught to Jackie and this confounds him and there is no understanding of anything positive in the religion he is following and Jackie said himself that he was afraid to make the confession.

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Lastly, the theme of religious hypocrisy is maintained by the relationship with Jackie and his sister and more importantly the last quote from Jackie’s sister puts the idea of the them in perspective. The actions of Jackie’s sister help with the theme of hypocrisy because he doesn’t understand how his sister can be a religious person and act the way she does. On the walk to the church his sister and is acting in a way that seems is if she doesn’t want Jackie to do this either but as soon as they reach the church she is throwing him through the doors and calling him a “dirty little caffler.” Also when his sister exits the confessional she is imitating a saint by the way her head is down, her eyes were lowered and her hands met very low on her stomach. Yet, as soon as Jackie falls out of the confessional she goes racing down to give him a swat and when the priest approaches her and tells her to leave Jackie alone she sticks her tongue out at Jackie as soon as the priest head turns away from her. Jackie is perplexed by these actions and is convinced of religious hypocrisy. The theme however can be summed up in Jackie’s sister’s final quote, “ some people have all the luck! ‘Tis no advantage to anybody trying to be good. I might as well be a sinner like you.” (paragraph 77) Jackie had received bullseyes, or candy, from the priest and Jackie’s sister was amazed because she thinks of herself as more religious then Jackie. The fact that she says there is no reason to be good and being a sinner is just as fine is the biggest hypocritical statement in the story. The quote brings the theme of the whole story together because it is the last lines O’Connor is leaving us with. It is a powerful statement that by itself suggest the theme of religious hypocrisy and without this statement there is argues of other themes but after reading this line from Jackie’s sister, the theme is obviously religious hypocrisy.

So, in conclusion, it is very obvious that O’Connor wrote this short humorous story to get across his point of the religious hypocrisy occurring in his homeland of Ireland. The theme of the short story, First Confession, by Frank O’ Connor, is religious hypocrisy which is supported by the teachings of Mrs. Ryan, Jackie’s religious instructor and through the hypocritical life of Jackie’s sister.

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Fashion

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The Color Purple is the story of a broke African American woman living in the south between World War 1 and World War . At this time, even though slavery had ended, many women, black and white, were still practically in oppression, and had to put up with several conditions that were reminiscent of the days of slavery. The problem was that they had to suffer being treated like an inferior being by their own families sometimes, as well as from the white community that lived there. It was a time that was filled with misery for many African American women, and they felt powerless to do anything about their situations. The novel focuses mainly on an African American woman named Celie, who has lived a hard life already when, at the age of 14 she begins writing notes to God to have someone to confide in, and tell her thoughts and secrets to. In her first note, she says “I have always been a good girl. Maybe you can give me a sign letting me know what is happening to me.” Already at that young age she has been taking care of her siblings, and has been working very hard at trying to get something of an education. She has been raped by her daddy repetitively because, as he says, “You gonna do what your mammy wouldn’t.” She has had two children by him already, and he’s taken both of them away right after they were born. She thinks he might have murdered one, but later finds out that he sold them to a couple in town. Celie doesn’t do anything about her situation, because she’s used to being treated like that. She’s terrified, and she worries for her sister Nettie too, when her Pa starts looking at her the same way.

Sooner or later, a man referred to as Mr. comes along and wants to marry Nettie, but he’s too old for her, and ends up marrying Celie. Mr. takes a couple of months to think it over, but goes ahead and marries her because he needs somebody to watch over his children. It’s not so much he wants a relationship, he just wants someone to mind of things for him so he doesn’t have to do much, and he wants something else when he wants it. Her father even tells Mr. that “She ugly... But she ain’t no stranger to hard work. And she clean. And God fixed her. You can do everything just like you want to and she ain’t gonna make you feed it or clothe it.” As soon as she is married, she is being abused by Mr.. She has to work the fields, raise his children (one of which splits her head open with a rock on the day she gets married), and suffer beatings whenever he gets angry about something and wants to take it out on her. One time when Mr. is asked by his son Harpo why he beats Celie, he tells him “Cause she my wife. Plus, she stubborn. All women good for- he don’t finish.” She tells God about how “He beat me like he beat the children.... Cept he don’t never hardly beat them. He say, Celie, git the belt. The children be outside the room peeking through the cracks. It all I can do not to cry. I make myself wood. I say to myself, Celie, you a tree. That’s how come I know trees fear man.”

Life goes on, until she meets a couple of women that change her life around. The first woman she meets is Sophia, who marries Harpo. She isn’t afraid to stand up for herself, even to a man. When Mr. asks Harpo if he ever beats her, Harpo is embarrassed, and says that he hasn’t. So Mr. tells him he should, because “Wives is like children. You have to let ‘em know who got the upper hand. Nothing can do that better than a good sound beating.” While he may have thought he gave his son some good advice, when Harpo tries it, Sophia knocks him right back into place by beating him up instead. When Celie and Sophia talk about Mr., Sophia tells her “You ought to bash Mr. head open.”, but she knows she would never get away with it. She’s just coping with things as they are because that was the way she’d always been raised and treated. It’s almost common to her, but at the same time, she admires the way Sophia can take care of herself, and I think she wished she was fearless enough to do the same. Sophia eventually leaves Harpo because of the way she is mistreated, but Celie finds out that she’s not so lucky when she shows her attitude to the Mayor and his wife in town one day. When she’s asked if she’d like to be a maid, she replies “Hell, no.” When the mayor asks her what she said, she repeats it, and he slaps her. With that, Sophia hits him back, and ends up getting beaten up herself, and put in jail. She gets out after Mr. and some others come up with a plan, but has to spend the rest of her sentence as a maid, living under the house where she is working off the rest of her time. The lesson for Celie (and others) is that although Sophia got away with standing up to Harpo and other black people, she found out that she couldn’t get away with it around everyone. The other person that changes Celie’s life and finally gives her some self confidence is Shug Avery, a singer that coincidentally was in love with Mr. years before. They wanted to get married, but couldn’t because he was forced to marry another woman that was prearranged for him. In another kind of twist, Shug is very mean to Celie when she first arrives at their house to get over being sick, and it is because she is to some extent jealous of Celie being married to the man she wanted to marry. Also, one of the reasons that Mr. beat Celie sometimes was because he was married to her, and she wasn’t Shug. After some time, the two women get to talking and find that they do like each other, eventually ending up being just more than friends. They form a strong friendship, and Celie finally realizes what it is like to be in love with someone else, not like a sister, but more like a companion, even though Shug is not a man. Over the years they get closer and closer, and one night, even though Shug had gotten married to a man named Grady, they talk about Celie’s life. She tells Shug that “Mr. come git me to take care his rotten children. He never ast me nothing bout myself. He clam on top of me and fuck and fuck, even when my head bandaged. Nobody ever love me.” Shug replies, “I love you, Miss Celie.” And then she haul off and kiss me on the mouth. With Shug on her side, and making her feel that she is worth something besides being a servant for everyone but herself, she finally starts to get some self worth. The last straw was when after years of not having any contact with her sister Nettie (she had run away after her father tried to get her, too, and ended up living with Celie for a short time until Mr. tried the same thing), she discovers all of the letters that Nettie had written her ever since she had left. Mr. had told her that she would never hear from Nettie again, and every time another letter would come for Celie, he would bury it in a strongbox upstairs, and not tell Celie about it. One day, Shug tells her to come with her after she’d gotten the key for the box, and they find “... way down under his tobacco, Nettie’s letters. Bunches and bunches of them. Some fat, some thin. Some open, some not.” Many years worth of letters, in which Celie finds out that Nettie became a missionary in Africa, and she has been watching over the children that Celie had years before, Adam and Olivia. She is also overjoyed to find out that her children are okay, and that it wasn’t her Pa that had raped her when she was 14, but her stepfather, so her children won’t be “dunces” as she’s been told that children of incest are. When she knows that Nettie is still living, her attitude changes a little more. She writes one letter to God saying “Now I know Nettie alive I begin to strut a little bit. Think, when she comes home us leave here. Her and me and our two children.” She finally gets the courage to stand up for herself one day when Shug says that she and Grady are going to leave for Memphis, and then says that Celie is going with them. Mr. starts to protest, saying “Over my dead body”, but Celie finally tells him off, calling him a “lowdown dog” and informing him “your dead body just the welcome mat I need.” She tells him “You took my sister Nettie away from me.. and she was the only person love me in the world.” Celie ends up going with Shug to Memphis, living in her home with her, and starting her own business, finally finding some gladness. She waits for her sister to come back and be reunited with her, and wants to see her children again, too. While she is creating a life for herself there, she finds out that she has been left a house with a storefront when her stepfather died. It belonged to her real father, and after her mother died, her stepfather didn’t say anything and kept it to himself. Now that he was gone, it came back to her and Nettie. She sets up her business there, sewing and selling clothing, and waiting for her sister to come home with her children. Celie has at last gotten her confidence and her independence when Sophia tells her about a change in Mr. after she left him. She says one day that “I know you won’t believe this, Miss Celie, but Mr. act like he trying to git religion.” When Celie talks to him next, he is more civilized to her than he has ever been up to that point. They make some conversation and eventually get to talk about things (especially Shug, who’d run off with someone else to New Orleans for a “last fling”). After they talk a few times, Celie gets along with him better, and even gets around to using his name, calling him Albert, instead of Mr.. She notices the change in him and his attitude towards women, and one conversation helps her learn why. They are talking about Shug, and Albert tells Celie how she stood up to him one time. “She say Albert, you been mistreating somebody I love. So as far as you concern, I’m gone.” Albert and Celie have quite a few conversations where they get to know each other better than they probably ever had, talking about religion, kids, and going over things that happened in their past. He seems to be remorseful about the way he had treated her, and apologizes for beating her just because she wasn’t Shug. Celie teaches him to sew clothing, and he starts to take pleasure in it. “Took me long enough to notice you such good company” he tells her, and she says, “He ain’t Shug, but he begin to be somebody I can talk to.” After years of not seeing her sister, and then years of using the letters to God and then to Nettie as a sort of lifeline, Celie’s life was finally getting in order. She finds that she can be joyful and satisfied having her own life, without being treated like a doormat by others. She is finally truthfully delighted with her life and the way it is going, apart from for one thing. Her life is absolute when, after years of wondering about her sister, and then years of waiting, Nettie finally comes home, bringing “their” children, and Adam’s wife from Africa. As Celie puts it, “I feel a little peculiar around the children. For one thing, they had grown. And I see they think me and Nettie and Shug and Albert and Samuel and Harpo and Sophia and Jack and Odessa real old and don’t know much what going on. But I don’t think us feel old at all. And us so happy. Matter of fact, I think this the youngest us ever felt.” With her long lost sister, and her kids reunited with her after so much time, there really wouldn’t be any other way to feel besides young again, except for maybe an urge to make up for lost time. Now that she’s being treated like she should be, it should be easier to make up the time to her family, because she can be herself, and be contented about it. That’s saying a bunch after all she’s been through, and Celie will definitely make the best of her as of this point on.



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Details on metamorphosis, my life with the wave, and Harrison Bergeson

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Gregor’s metamorphis did not only affect him, it affected his whole family in a certain way. It affected each member of the family in a certain way. When he metamorphosed into the bug, none of his family treated him the same. His sister was the only one who showed any concern about him by bringing him his food each day. She even made him choices of what to eat. “To find out what he liked she brought him a whole selection of food, all set out on an old newspaper” (8.Kafka, 58). She did not even have to do that. I think she just wanted him to know that she cares for him. She was hesitant about seeing him as a bug and Gregor knew this so every time she would come to feed him, he would hide on the couch, this becoming a norm to the both of them.

It came to Gregor’s sister Grete has become grieved, she would not even clean his room, and she would just rush in there and open the window. “The very way she became distressed him. Hardly was she in the room when she rushed to the window, without even taking time to shut the door, careful as she was usually to shield the sight of Gregor’s room from the others, and as if she were almost suffocating tore the even bitterest cold and drawing deep breaths” (4.Kafka, 61). It seemed like she was not doing it because she was caring for her brother, it seem like it has just become an awful chore of hers. Gregor’s sister finally lost it when the lodgers seen Gregor and refused to pay the parents for room and board. At one point she says, “Things can’t go on like this. Perhaps you



don’t realize that, but I do. I won’t utter my brother’s name in the presence of this creature, and so all I say is we must get rid of it. We’ve tried to look after it and put up with it as far as is humanly possible, and I don’t think anyone could reproach us in the slightest” (77.Kafka, 74). After all she did for him, looking after him, feeding him, the only one that showed any compassion for him, she was the first one to state it. They all wanted to get rid of him. Gregor was all alone.

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The narrator starts to realize that he loves her when she was waiting for him at his apartment, though first he is shocked by seeing her there. “Her presence changed my life. The house of dark corridors and dusty furniture was filled with air, with sun, with green and blue reflections, a numerous and happy populace of reverberations and echoes” (0.Paz, 64). The way he describes her being there shows that he has compassion for her. She complained about the apartment so he decorated it like a beach, hanging up seashells, putting up models of sailboats, and even installed a fish colony.

He ceases to love her when the fish come into the story. “It was not jealousy that I watched them swimming in my friend, caressing her breasts, sleeping between her legs, adorning her hair with little flashes of color” (6.Patz, 65). He feels that she was cheating on him with these fish. He did not omit that he was jealous of the fish, but the way he described them. “Among the other fish there were a few particularly repulsive and ferocious ones, little tigers from the aquarium with large fixed eyes and jagged blood thirsty mouths” (7.Patz, 65). He hated them and the way they got all the attention from the wave. He starts to hate her when he tries to squash the fish, but they swim away and



he starts to drown and all she does is laugh at him. “I felt very weak, fatigue and humiliated. And at the same time her voluptuousness made me close my eyes because her voice was sweet and she spoke to me of delicious death of the drowned. When I came to my senses, I began to fear and hate her” (8.Paz, 65). That is when the narrator’s feelings drastically change about the wave.

When the narrator dispatches the frozen wave into pieces it represents their breakup. It shows that they do not belong with each other anymore. “In a restaurant in the outskirts I sold her to a waiter friend, who immediately began to chop her into little pieces, which he carefully deposited in the bucket where the bottles are chilled” (0.Paz, 66). This shows the relationship has come to an end. He would never see her again.

When the family first saw Gregor as a bug, he tried to walk out of his room, but his father tries to drive Gregor back into his room using a rolled up newspaper. Gregor tried to turn around but he was not fast enough. His father shoved him back into there. “One side of his body rose up, he was tilted at an angle in the doorway, his flank was quite bruised, horrid blotches stained the white door, soon he was stuck fast and, left to himself, could not have moved at all, his legs on one side fluttered trembling to the air, those on the other were crushed painfully to the floor, when from behind his father gave him a strong push which was literally a deliverance and he flew far into the room bleeding freely” (1.Kafka, 56). His father did even care if he hurt Gregor as long as he got him into the room.

Gregor’s mother wanted to see him, so his sister and she went into his room to see Gregor. They decided to since his footprints were on the floor and ceiling, that his movement would be less hindered if they removed some furniture. While they were out of the room, Gregor climbed on the wall and his mother caught a glimpse of this and fainted. Gregor’s sister Grete rushed to get her medicine. She was startled by Gregor following her only trying to help. She ran back into the room and slammed the door on Gregor’s face, leaving him locked out. He panics and runs all over the ceiling and floor till passing out. His father getting home from work, irritated because he has not worked in five years sees his son passed out and becomes irritated and starts throwing apples at Gregor, one penetrating his back, which leads to his death.

The two females in “Harrison Bergeron” are very different, completely opposite. In the story Vonnegut gives you a sense that women are as equal as men are. Coming from the period that he wrote this was never heard of. The first woman, Harrison’s mother Hazel was not that bright. “Gee, I could tell that one was a doozy,” said Hazel. “You can say that again,” said George. “Gee,” said Hazel, “I could tell you that one was a doozy” (0.Vonnegut, 8). This was an example that Vonnegut put in there to show how dumbfounded she was. Her husband George was being sarcastic and she took as if I meant for her to say it again. She could not hold a long serious thought. “You been crying?” He said to Hazel. “Yup” she said. “What about?” he said. “I forget”, she said. “Something real sad on television” (84.Vonnegut, 8). Her son just got shot and killed

and she could not even remember what she was crying about. Vonnegut characterized her for not being very intelligent, how most women were stereotyped to be in the 160’s.

Then there was Diana Moon Glampers, the Handy-Capper General. She was the law, people were afraid of her. “Diana Moon Glampers loaded the gun again. She aimed it at the musicians and told them that they had ten seconds to get their handicaps back on” (80.Vonnegut, 8). The people listened to her because they fear because she was the law. This was the totally opposite of Hazel. Where no one would have ever thought of a woman with that much power, she was very smart and had a high ranking class in the government. Vonnegut made these two female characters like this to take away the stereotypes from women.



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CINDERELLA

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In A story of Sibling Rivalry and Oedipal Conflicts, Bettelheim explains that the story Cinderella speaks to the child’s unconscious mind and helps the child resolve conflicts. Bettelheim supports his ideas by explaining how the child can relate to the story. He compares the child to Cinderella to help explain his theory.

Bettelheim explains that the reason for Cinderella having stepsister instead of sisters is so that the story can be more believable. The way the stepsisters treat Cinderella would be more acceptable than if her sisters were to treat her as cruel as her stepsister did. When the child reads about how bad the stepsisters treat Cinderella they feel they can relate to her. The reason for this is because they feel that they are treated just as bad as Cinderella by their siblings. This in my opinion is true. The child feels that he is treated like Cinderella but he also knows that he really is not.

When the child becomes aware of his feeling and thoughts towards his siblings he starts to feel guilty. This leads him to feel that he is worthless like Cinderella and he feels he can relate to her. Feeling worthless makes the child believe that his siblings will have a better future and be better than him. The child will then hope that because he is worthless like Cinderella, he will have the same “salvation”.

Bettelheim does a great job in supporting his ideas. His evidence has proven to me that a story can speak to a child’s unconscious mind. A child might not realize it until they actually think about it. If you really think about it, some time in your life you’ve felt that you could relate to a character in a story.

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A Father's Curse

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In August Wilson’s Fences, Troy, Lyons, and Cory lead their lives in a similar way because they have inherited their lifestyle from their fathers. Men and women tend to learn parenting skills from their parents; therefore, they will raise their children in the same manner in which they were raised.

Troy’s mid-life crisis has destroyed his family. He is tired of responsibility, and he turns to another woman for comfort. He disregards the stability of his family in order to search for happiness with another woman. His family cannot forgive his betrayal. He speaks poorly of his father because his father had affairs with other women and did not care about his children unless work or responsibility was involved. Whenever he talks to Bono about his father, he says, “Sometimes I wish I hadn’t known my daddy”. Troy does not realize it, but he is making the same mistakes that his father made. He raises his children in the same way that he was raised. Whenever Cory asks about Troy’s feeling for him, Troy replies, “You live in my house…sleep you behind on my bedclothes…fill you belly up with my food…cause you my son. Not cause I like you”. Troy does not think that love is important because he sees Cory as only a responsibility which is how Troy’s father saw him.

Cory is a stubborn, hateful, and angry individual who wants nothing more than to play football. He has an opportunity to play college football, but Troy will not let him because he thinks that Cory will only be disappointed by racial hatred. Cory lies to his father and continues to play football, and he does not work up enough nerve to talk back to Troy until after the affair. At this point, Cory feels that Troy is no longer a part of the family, and he argues with him and says, “You ain’t never done nothing but hold me back”. Troy throws Cory out of the house, and Cory does not return until after his father’s death. He does not want to go to his father’s funeral because he feels that he must stand up to Troy and not obey his every wish. Rose is angered by this retort and says, “You just like him. You Troy Maxson all over again”. Cory tries to deny it, but it is inevitable that he will be like his father.

Like his father, Lyons also goes to jail and gets a divorce from his wife. Troy always gave Lyons money which probably contributed to his money problems, but Lyons seems to be grateful for who his father is. Whenever he speaks to Cory, he keeps Troy’s memory alive by saying, “You got to take the crookeds with the straights. That’s what Papa used to say”.

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Each of the men inherit their father’s values, personality, and lifestyle. The hereditary cycle that is passed from fathers to sons is continuous and inevitable. In order to understand the son’s personality, it is wise to look at their father’s lifestyle.

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A Comparison of Literary Styles in Miguel Street and Milk Under Wood

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A Comparison of Literary Styles in Miguel Street and Milk Under Wood

Every piece of poetry and prose has its own unique characteristics from the beginning to end. Most pieces of literature follow a standard form, but as the author or poet adds their own ideas it becomes an entertaining or educational experience. As is the case with V. S Naipaul=s Miguel Street and Dylan Thomas= Milk Under Wood. A compression dealing with narrative and structural style shows that the two have some similarities for example themes as well as some differences like the use of time. Both, Naipaul and Thomas, have their own sense of writing style which contributes to the overall effect of their work.

Miguel Street is a collection of memoirs written by V. S Naipaul which discusses Naipaul=s life and eventually accumulates to give an overall portrait of Miguel Street. Miguel Street is based on a street that is housed by a gang of people whom we hear about through Naipaul=s eyes. The characters are discussed, in detail, one by one as they are remembered by Naipaul. The first stories occur during Naipaul=s childhood and they continue to age as Naipaul does. Bogart, a bigamist, is the first character described, followed by Popo who happens to be a thief and a carpenter to Elias who aspires to become a doctor (Naipaul 1). Through the discussion of the people around Naipaul, we learn about him and the environment that he grew up in. Through the abuse and the poverty, we realize the need to succeed that Naipaul and his friends have. The issue of stereotypes and separation of social classes shows the struggle that Naipaul had to face and overcome to survive. Naipaul gets strength in character as well as understanding and maturity through his friends, family and home.



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Naipaul=s format of personal portraits, give his readers a detailed look at those who surround and influence him. Although the reader is introduced to many characters, the reader only get Naipaul=s personal point of view as well as his thoughts and opinions since Miguel Street is based on his recollections of the past. As well, since these portraits of characters are recalled from Naipaul=s memory, there may be details added or deleted without Naipaul=s actually consent or knowledge. The overall details of Miguel Street can be persuaded as Naipaul wanted rather than what actually occurred.

The language and character analysis is portrayed in an everyday style. Slang and nicknames are used time and time again, along with dialogue written as it was actually said. The use of this type of language allows the reader to have a more relaxed understanding of the novel as well as a more comprehensive understanding of the actual stories. Through colorful descriptions of the actions of the characters, Naipaul gives a vivid picture of life on Miguel Street

The tone is often serious since it deals with serious issues of abuse, poverty, mental disorders, and fear of failure. On a lighter note, theses issues are discussed in a humorous and fun nature that the audience can relate to. The mood of the collection has a tendency to change from serious to humorous as the reader turns the pages.



Under Milk Wood written by Dylan Thomas is a hilarious play that revolves in one day. It discusses the issues of a small town from the town tramp, Polly Garter, to the Reverend Eli Jenkins to the wannabe promiscuous Mae Rose Cottage (Thomas 81). The town, Llabreggub, consists of everyday people who are continuously in one another=s business. Thomas gives a description of his characters and their actions through dialogue within the play. The play opens up in the middle of the night, just as the characters begin to dream. As Thomas reveals the dreams that each character has, he actually discusses the fear or desire that an individual may have. Whether it is the desire of an affair, a lover, or a need to succeed or the fear of being caught by your spouse, rejection, or death, Thomas through the dreaming scene discusses one=s underlying secrets. Thomas builds his play around this scene which allows his characters to give some information as to the direction of the play without actually telling the audience. The everyday issues that people face, such as social class or sexuality, are portrayed through the daily lives of each character and their actions.

Through the format of a play, we get the ideas and opinions of many characters rather than just Thomas=. The point of view shifts as the dialogue does which gives the audience many emotions and opinions to deal with at the same time. The description of each character changes along with the speaker, so we are continuously getting feedback discussing a character’s actions. As there are usually many characters in a play, we can often get a variety of personal opinions form the characters as is the case with Thomas’ play. As the play evolves in one day, the audience may get a distorted view on a character since one character depends on another to get introduced as well as the audience=s dependency for information.

The play has a language that is proper with an everyday slang involved as well. The sentence structure is short and choppy with interruptions through the dialogue which gives the readers an actual feeling of realness. By using repetition in his dialogue, Thomas allows certain ideas or beliefs to be expressed in a serious way.

Under Milk Wood is a play that has a very humorous and carefree tone. Through the dreaming scene to the day time scene, the mood is seen as one of an interesting and insightful. Through the discovery of fears and desires, Thomas allows his audience to actually get involved on a personal note. Playing on fears is something that all individual=s do, time and time again so that they can actually achieve their desires.



Both Naipaul and Thomas share some qualities in his or her writing styles while at the same time they also differ. They both try to use language and words that an everyday person can understand and appreciate. As well they share some common traits in themes and ideas which include stereotypes and social class. In Miguel Street, the characters are defined by their place in the Street. To be popular and well liked, you were a part of the Miguel Street gang. As for Milk Under Wood, your popularity was defined by who you knew in town and who you could associate with. Both pieces of work tell a story with the difference being that one is true, Miguel Street, while the other is false, Milk Under Wood.

Both pieces of work discuss daily activities that normal people would go through, whether it be going to the store or saying hello to your neighbors. Miguel Street and Milk Under Wood, give their readers a sense of routine and conformity without actually saying so. By discussing their daily lives, they in fact discuss what all individual=s try to accomplish to get through the day. Naipaul and Thomas, try to get at the underlying truth of the towns they live in. They want to bring to the surface everything that people are afraid of or are trying to hide such as abuse, cheating, and lying.

The concept of time is also used differently by the two authors. Naipaul uses the concept of flashbacks to recall his past childhood. His memoirs span over a time frame of years whereas Thomas= work occurs in one day. Through the idea of memoirs, Naipaul also brings to his collection a sense of maturity and wisdom. Though Thomas= work also has maturity, he fits everything he has to say in a single day without leaving any necessary details out. He begins his play late at night and continues on throughout the day and into the following night.



Both Naipaul and Thomas have excellent writing styles that allow them to entice their readers or audience into the world they have created through their own visions. Naipaul=s memoirs give the audience a one sided point of view whereas Thomas gives us many. Through the comparison of Naipaul and Thomas’ literary styles, many similarities as well as differences are presented in a well constructed manner.



Works Cited

Naipaul, V.S. Miguel Street. England Penguin Books, 171.

Thomas, Dylan. Under Milk Wood. United States New Directions Publishing Corporation, 154.

Please note that this sample paper on A Comparison of Literary Styles in Miguel Street and Milk Under Wood is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on A Comparison of Literary Styles in Miguel Street and Milk Under Wood, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on A Comparison of Literary Styles in Miguel Street and Milk Under Wood will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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THE EU

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THE EUROPEAN UNION

Member States

15 democratic States - 65 million citizens - voluntarily joined by a political desire to present a united front to the great challenges of our age Germany, France, Italy, UK, Spain, Belgium, Greece, Netherlands, Portugal, Austria, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Luxembourg and Ireland. UK a member for 0 years.

1 other countries are applying for membership Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta,Poland, Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. Most of these are expected to join by 007, some by 004.

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Objectives

• To promote European unity;

• To improve living and working conditions for citizens;

• To foster economic development, balanced trade and fair competition;

• To reduce economic disparities between regions;

• To help developing countries;

• To preserve peace and freedom � the EU was originally conceived as the Coal and Steel Community to prevent another world war (coal and steel were crucial to war preparation).

Resources

• Community legislation, applicable in the 15 Member States;

• The budget, financed by the Communitys own resources ( billion euros, £58bn, in 000);

• The administrative and technical staff employed by the Community institutions.

Subsidiarity principle

• A superior authority should only be involved when a goal can not be achieved more effectively at a lower level. of 7

Institutions and bodies

• The EU is now a major political force in many international fora and has a much stronger voice than any of its members, even the UK.

• 40 per cent of UK legislation originates from the EU process. (This rises to 80% for Environmental legislation). Regulations go straight to local authorities/agencies.

• Legislation is proposed by the Commission and sent to the Council and the European Parliament, both of which have to pass the legislation if it is to be enacted. The Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions will normally give their opinions to the Commission, the Council and the European Parliament before legislation is passed.

• Whilst there are 11 languages currently spoken in the EU, English has become the lingua franca.

• Bottom line, the EU works.

The European Commission

• The College of Commissioners is composed of 0 independent members, proposes Community legislation, monitors compliance with legislation and with the Treaties, and administers common policies. They have to agree to any amendments by the Council of Ministers or European Parliament.

• Romani Prodi, president; Neil Kinnock, vice-president, administrative reform; Chris Patten, external relations; Loyola de Palacio, transport & energy and 16 other Commissioners meet on a weekly basis.

They have real and well informed discussions.

• The College is very political, but not party political. The rest of the staff are similar to any other civil service.

• At present, 0 Commissioners are appointed by a common agreement of member states (

Commissioners for each of the 5 larger states and 1 Commissioner for each of the other states.

• Commission now invested by the European Parliament.

• 4 Directorates-General (Departments in UK speak). Economic and financial affairs; Enterprise; Competition; Employment & social affairs; Agriculture; Transport & energy; Environment; Research; Information; Fisheries; Internal market; Regional policies; Tax system and customs union; Education & culture; Health & consumer policies; Justice & internal affairs; External relations; Commercial policy; Development; Enlargement; Common service on external relations; Personnel & administration; Budget; and Financial Control.

• Grown from 5,000 staff/0,000 transactions in 180 to 8,000 staff & contractors/600,000 transactions today. Currently being re-organised by Neil Kinnock to reflect today’s needs. Up till now the organisation and its practices were based on the much smaller organisation. See

http//europa.eu.int/comm/governance/white_paper/index_en.htm for proposals to reform the EU.

• Corruption really only a minor issue and no more prevalent than in any other government. Institutional reform, held back by other priorities and vested interests, now being pushed through by Neil Kinnock.

Some reforms will require changes to the EU treaties and to Belgian employment law before they can be completed.

• Forward looking - DG Environment developed a 10 year vision, which is used to formulate future proposals for legislation. Use incentives, not just strictures.

• DTI view is the they want to promote 50% and resist the other 50%.

• See http//europa.eu.int for further information and links to all of the EU institutions.

The Council of Ministers (or Council of European Union)

• The Council, composed of 15 members (one minister from each government), takes decisions and adopts Community legislation. Its membership depends on the subject under consideration (it may be made up of the 15 Ministers for Foreign Affairs, Agriculture, Transport, Finance, etc.).

• The European Council is part of this and comprises The Heads of State and Government and their Foreign Ministers, together with the President of the European Commission. Its task is to boost the construction of Europe at the highest level, to resolve blockages, and to define the general guidelines for economic and political cooperation in Europe. It is the major organ for political impulse.

• Presidency rotates among the member states every six months (001/ Belgium, 00/1 Spain, 00/ Denmark).

• Simple majority required in very limited circumstances. of 7

• Qualified majority required for a wide range of subjects. 6 out of 87 votes required � Germany, France, Italy & UK 10 votes each; Spain 8 votes; Belgium, Greece, Netherlands & Portugal 5 votes each;Austria & Sweden 4 votes each; Denmark, Finland & Ireland votes each; and Luxembourg votes.

• Unanimity is required for sensitive subjects of a diplomatic, political or social nature.

• The Council must be unanimous in order to amend a Commission proposal.

• Legislation will only be adopted if also agreed to by the European Parliament.

• Council meetings are held in camera. Object is not to make enemies. Ministers make the political points, then the President and officials retire to a room and try to build consensus.

• COREPER is the permanent representatives committee. It is composed of the permanent

representatives of each member. Each delegation is led by an ambassador who takes part in the work of COREPER on matters of a political nature or a deputy for matters of a technical nature.

• COREPER prepares the Council decision.

• Proposed legislation is reviewed by Committees in the House of Commons and the House of Lords (their analysis is highly regarded). But with about 1,500 proposals each year, it is difficult for them to review all proposals in detail.

• UK Departments review all proposals in detail and provide detailed briefings to UK ministers, officials and MEPs (the UK briefings are reported to be the best in Europe). The UK position is coordinated by the Cabinet Office, who consider tactics to be everything. The UK office is known as UKREP and has 140 staff in Brussels. Their view is that the name of the game is building the broadest possibleconsensus.

• What a minister says in Brussels (usually very supportive), can be very different to what he/she says in the UK (often very negative).

• The Secretariat of The Council of Ministers has ,700 staff working in 10 Directorates General. Its Secretary General, also known as the High Representative, is Javier Solana.

• See also http//ue.eu.int

• The Council of Ministers (or Council of European Union) should not be confused with the Council of Europe, which is based in Strasbourg, and has 4 European countries as its members. See www.coe.int for further information.

The European Parliament

• The European Parliament, directly elected by universal suffrage, represents the peoples of the Community. It takes part in the lawmaking and budgetary processes and has limited, but increasing, powers of control. Most legislation has to be approved by both the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers. The EP is not responsible for the cost of its decisions.

• It has 66 MEPs, including 87 from the UK. They are all elected by proportional legislation.

• In the UK, they are elected on a regional basis. The MEPs for the South-East region are Nirj Deva (Con), James Elles (Con), Nigel Farage (UK Ind), Daniel Hannan (Con), Chris Huhne (LibDem), Caroline Lucas (Green), Baroness Nicholson of Winterbourne (LibDem), Roy Perry (Con), James Provan (Con), Peter Skinner (Lab) and Mark Watts (Lab). Full details of the UK MEPs can be found on www.europarl.org.uk.

• There are currently 8 “parties” in the European Parliament. They are Group of the European People’s Party (Conservatives - MEPs); Group of the European Socialist Party (Labour - 181); European Liberal Democrat and Reforms Party (5); Green Group/Free European Alliance (46); Group of the European United Left/Nordic Green Left (4); Union for Europe of Nations (0); Technical Group of Independent Deputies (1); European Group for Democracies and Differences (16); plus 8 non-attached MEPs. The political groups do not have a constituency role.

• All work is organised through committees which report back to the EP for final discussion and voting.

• The politicians are surprisingly accessible, open to discussion, seeking information. In meetings, and in the corridors of the Parliament, narrow nationalism and intolerance are not evident. The MEP’s view is that they can get on with the work and that they do genuinely make a difference. MEPs must master their brief and know their colleagues if they are to be successful.

• The EP’s responsibilities and powers have been widened. In 1, it censured the then Commission and all 0 Commissioners had to resign. The defeat of the Takeover Directive, due to the concerted action of the German MEP’s, was a wake up call to the EU.

• See www.europarl.eu.int for further information.

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The Economic and Social Committee

• Alongside these institutions, the Economic and Social Committee, a consultative body, involves representatives of employers, trade unions and other groups in the process of drafting Community legislation.

• There are members, including 4 from the UK, appointed for four years. This is part-time work (0-5 days/year), done in addition to their normal job � they are there because of their job.

• They are organised in three groups Group 1 Employers; Group Workers; and Group Various Interests (farmers, craftsmen, dealers, professional activities, etc.).

• ECOSOC has to be consulted by the Commission, Council and the EP on the following issues Agriculture policy; Free movement of workers; Right of establishment; Freedom to provide services; Transport; Internal market; Social policy; European social fund; Vocational training; Research and technological training; and Environment.

• Whilst the Commission, Council and EP do not have to accept ECOSOC’s advice, it is part of the EU method of consensus building. This contrasts with the UK approach of I win, you lose, where the majority party normally gets its way, regardless of what the other parties and the majority of the population think. But there is a question on how beneficial this consultation is.

• In 000, ECOSOC issued 154 opinions upon consultation by the Council and Commission; 44 opinions on its own initiative; and 5 information reports.

• See www.esc.eu.int for further information.

The Committee of the Regions

• Another body ancillary to the Commission, Council and the European Parliament, the Committee of the Regions, introduces representation for regional and local bodies in the Community institutional system and has advisory functions.

• There are also members, including 4 from the UK, appointed for four years. This is again parttime work (0-5 days/year), done in addition to their normal job � they are there because of their job.

• They are organised into 8 Committees.

• The COR has to be consulted by the Commission, Council and the EP on the following issues Education; Culture; Public health; the Regional Development Fund; Implementation of the trans-European networks; and the Framework agreements for the structural funds

• There is a question as to whether the COR has influenced any proposals. The view of one MEP was that the COR should lobby the EP in the same way as everyone else � if the MEP’s are used to working this way, it may be the right thing to do.

• See www.cor.eu.int for further information.

The European Investment Bank

• The role of the European Investment Bank is to contribute on a financial level to the balanced development of the Community.

• It can currently lend up to Euro 50 billion to eligible projects. This money is obtained from the capital markets, using its AAA rating, supported by the commitment of its members.

• Eligible projects are in areas that the EU want to develop and would not otherwise happen or not happen quickly enough. Examples of such projects are Glasgow, where the council borrowed money from the EIB in order to install IT throughout its schools; major infrastructure links; renewable energy projects (the EU goal is 10%, with the market only expected to provide 5%).

• See www.eib.org for further information.

• The EIB should not be confused with the European Central Bank, which is based in Frankfurt, and is responsible for the Euro and setting interest rates for its participating countries. See www.ecb.int for further information.

The Court of Auditors

• The Court of Auditors monitors the implementation of the Community budget.

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• 15 Judges appointed for six years, by Council of Ministers in consultation with the European Parliament. John Wiggins appointed from UK

• Independent, acting supremely, it looks after the external control of European public expenditure and gives opinions on the financial and budgetary plans of the EU.

• It has about 500 staff and is organised into four audit groups. All the Judges, except their President, are members of one or more audit groups.

• Draft reports and opinions are prepared by the groups and submitted to the 15 Judges for approval.

• See www.eca.eu.int for further information.

The Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance

• The Court of Justice, based from the outset in Luxembourg, together with the Court of First Instance, ensures that the law is observed in the process of Community integration.

• The Court of First Instance is the lower court. It has 15 Judges (Judge Nic Forwood from the UK) appointed for six years. It operates through 5 Chambers of to 5 Judges, although all 15 can meet for important cases.

• It can deal with cases brought by individuals or non-state organisations. Appeals on points of law (but not fact) can be made to the Court of Justice.

• The Court of Justice has 15 Judges (Judge David Edward from the UK) assisted by Advocates-General. They are appointed for six years.

• Advocates-General (not found in the UK legal system) make reasoned submissions in open Court, with complete impartiality and independence, on cases brought before the Court of Justice, in order to assist the Court in the performance of the task assigned to it.

• See www.curia.eu.int for further information.

Rapporteurs

• A system of Rapporteurs and shadow rapporteurs is used widely in the EU, particularly in the EP.

Rapporteurs are appointed by the various committees and courts to review a proposal, obtain any necessary advice, and prepare a draft for the committee or court to review.

• Where a proposal affects more than one committee, the rapporteurs will liaise with each other.

Implementation of legislation

• Regulations are compulsory. They establish the end to be achieved and how to do it. The regulation is directly applicable in each state, simultaneously and uniformly.

• Directives bind each state as to the result to be achieved, but leaves the national authority to decide the form and the means. In practice, the maneuvering margin for each state is minimal.

• Decisions are addressed to a precisely defined individual, entity or member state.

• Recommendations and opinions are not binding, but useful guidance of national behavior and legislation.

• Once legislation has been passed by the EU, it is then generally passed to the member countries to implement. The members normally have several years to complete the implementation.

• It is at this stage that local officials can add interpretations that cause ridicule. One example was a UK official who was also a nature enthusiast. He modified the EU proposal in its UK drafting, with the consequence that a golf club had to flood its bunkers twice a year, in order to protect a species of grass the official was concerned about.

• National ministers undoubtedly take advantage of EU legislation to implement legislation they believe in, but publicly blame on the EU.

Lobbying

• This needs to be done at the start of the legislative process, if it is to be effective. It must also be focused and concise. A fax just before a vote is far too late and there is no time to read generic information.

• Send any proposed amendments electronically, preferably in before and after versions � this really will be appreciated. 6 of 7

• Any proposal should be seen to address the big picture. Get cross-border support if possible.

The EUs view of Britain

• Surprisingly good at various levels!

• The Commissioners are political animals and have a great interest in our parliament and political processes. Many have studied here and have a soft spot for the UK.

• The Commission as a whole, and perhaps the Council too, likes us. There is a feeling that if they get Britain on board for a particular proposal then it is more likely to succeed and be more complete. There was also an intellectual challenge to bring the UK round to an acceptable common position.

• There is some sympathy for the UKs position on the Euro. But we must join at some point. It is realised that with the UK’s anti-Euro press and many sceptical politicians, the UK cant jump in yet. On the other hand, if we dont decide relatively soon ( to years?), the goodwill may evaporate.

• British civil servants are highly regarded for the quick analysis of issues presented at meetings, and for briefings sent to the UK MEPs, etc - these are sought by other nationals.

The Press

• Whilst there is generally reasonable reporting of the EU throughout its member states, the UK xenophobic press is unique. It lacks coverage and has a negative attitude to the EU. None of the UK tabloids have a full time correspondent in Brussels. This is ridiculous, given that 40% of UK legislation originates here.

• It is good to have criticism, but the UK press is extreme. Whereas our MEPs, etc can expect to be interviewed by the press of other members periodically, the UK press are normally not interested and only become interested if they can report the EU in a negative way. When asbestos was found in one of the EU offices, one tabloid headline the next day was “EU to blow up Brussels HQ”. This was nonsense and pure sensationalism. The building is still there and is due to re-open shortly, with the asbestos removed.

• The exception to this is the FT, which is now a paper of note through-out Europe, read by most decision makers. If the Commission wants to progress something, they will often leak it to the FT. The Independent also has a reasonable reporting of EU issues.

• The UK regional press appears to have little interest in the EU, unless it is of direct relevance to its readership area.

Electoral attitudes

• The apathy shown by the UK and other electorates is a problem for the future.

• It may be that the affluence of the electorate leaves them uninterested. It may be that the press, particularly in the UK, disengages them from the political process. It may be that the management of the political messages, the spin-doctoring, disengages them from the political process.

• If the electorates are content to leave the politicians to get on with the job, it is sad but not a problem. If, on the other hand, this leads to violent activism by small minorities, as recently seen in the petrol price protests last year and the anti-capitalism protests this year, it becomes a problem that both the politicians and the press should think about.

• Whilst the people in the EU appear to want to get their message across, they are unclear as how to do it. It is not always in the member country government’s interest to give the EU credit (they like to take credit for the good bits & blame the EU for the difficult bits).

• Even when there is a clear message to deliver (and there are briefings every day in Brussels), these have limited benefit if the press is unwilling to report on them and/or only reports the negative side of every thing.

• If the EU is about consensus building, then it would seem that the EU system may give the electorate a more responsive result than the UK model. But it can be slower and involve a lot of horse trading.

• A problem for the EU is the sheer size of size of a constituency. How do you represent 600,000 people? The superiority of the EU system to Westminster may be illusory. It will always be difficult for 7 of 7 the EU to be close to its citizens and the EU does sometimes get out of step with the majority view. Perhaps the key is the politicians and civil servants � if they are motivated to move the EU/UK forward, then either system will probably produce a good result. If they are motivated to move themselves forward regardless of moving the EU/UK forward, then neither system will produce a good result.







ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION

Economic and monetary union is a logical accompaniment to the single market and a major political milestone on the road to a united Europe. Uniting currencies which to the countries of Europe were the symbols and instruments of their sovereignty for several centuries is a venture which has neither a precedent in our history since the Roman Empire, nor any equivalent elsewhere in the world. A single European currency should come into circulation on 1 January 1, replacing national currencies as from 1 January 00, and helping to make the man in the street more aware of belonging to a new entity.

The emergence of the single European currency is the result of lengthy, patient development.

In 170 the Werner Report came out in favour of creating an economic and monetary union in three stages over a period of ten years. But the political will to press ahead with this union was weakened by the first oil crisis and the project ran out of steam.

However, a European exchange-rate system, popularly known as the snake, was introduced in 17. In 174 the Council adopted a Decision designed to bring about a high degree of convergence between national economies and a Directive on stability, growth and full employment. However, growing economic instability gradually eroded the foundations of the system and the French franc, sterling and the Italian lira left the snake.

THE EUROPEAN MONETARY SYSTEM

The EMS has three main components. On 6 and 7 July 178, at the Bremen European Council, the Heads of State and Government decided to establish the European Monetary System (EMS), which came into force on 1 March 17.

The EMS has created a zone of monetary stability in Europe, encouraging growth and investment.

· The ECU This is seen as the key element in the system. It is a basket of the currencies of the Member States.

· The exchange-rate and intervention mechanisms Each currency has a central exchange rate linked to the ECU. This is used to determine central rates for each pair of currencies. Until August 1 bilateral exchange rates were allowed to fluctuate within a band of .5%, or up to 6% in exceptional cases, around the central rate. Since then the band has been increased to 15% following serious upsets on the currency markets.

· The credit mechanisms In the event of bilateral exchange rates approaching the 15% threshold, central banks have unlimited liability to intervene to ensure that the threshold is not crossed.

The EMS has succeeded in creating a zone of increasing monetary stability. But it has still to achieve its true potential. Several currencies remain outside the exchange-rate mechanism or are allowed to fluctuate within wider bands. Insufficient convergence of national budgetary policies has created tensions, and some competitive devaluations have threatened the unity of the single market.

The last lap on the road to EMU

In order to remove the non-tariff barriers to the free movement of goods, capital, services and persons and complete the single market, the single currently quickly seemed to be a necessity.

On the basis of the report submitted by the Commission President, Jacques Delors, in June 18, the Madrid European Council defined the objectives in broad terms the Community was to embark on a process comprising several stages, the first of which was to begin on 1 July 10, and culminating in the introduction of a single currency. Monetary and economic progress would go hand in hand.

During the first stage the Member States would draw up convergence programmes designed to promote improvements in and convergence of economic performance, thereby making it possible to establish fixed exchange rates.

The Treaty of Maastricht

The Treaty signed in Maastricht on 7 February 1 makes progress towards a single currency irreversible, by splitting the timetable of achievements into three stages.

The criteria for going on to the third stage have been set as follows

· price stability the rate of inflation may not exceed the average rates of inflation of the three Member States with the lowest inflation by more than 1.5%;

· interest rates long-term interest rates shall not vary by more than % in relation to the average interest rates of the three Member States with the lowest interest rates;

· deficits national budget deficits must be close to or below % of the GNP;

· debt public debt may exceed 60% of GNP only if the trend is declining towards this level;

· exchange rate stability a national currency shall not have been devalued during the two previous years and must have remained within the EMS .5% margin of fluctuation.

Stage II of economic and monetary union began on 1 January 14. It is a transitional stage during which a determined effort will be made to achieve economic convergence. A European Monetary Institute (EMI) was set up in Frankfurt to strengthen the coordination of Member States monetary policies, promote the use of the ECU and prepare the ground for the creation of a European Central Bank in Stage III.

The Madrid European Council on 15 and 16 December 15 christened the future European currency the Euro and adopted the technical procedure for creating it.

Stage III will begin on 1 January 1. In May 18 the Member States Finance Ministers will decide, on the basis of reports from the Commission and the EMI, which Member States meet the conditions for adoption of a single currency. The Commission considers that as regards the economic forecasts of the future, a majority of Member States will be able to fulfil the conditions set for the Euro by 1 January 1. The Heads of State and Government meeting within the Council will confirm by qualified majority, after consulting the European Parliament, which Member States fulfil the conditions necessary for the single currency to be adopted.

At the beginning of Stage III a European Central Bank will be set up and the exchange rates between the participating currencies will be fixed once and for all. The Bank will be independent of national governments and will manage the monetary policies of all the Member States joining the single currency. Member States outside the currency union will join as soon as their economic performance permits, or when they take the political decision.

The single currency, the ECU, must be introduced on 1 January 1 for the administrations and the banks. On 1 January 00 at the latest, the Euro coins and notes must be in circulation. The common faces of the coins were officially introduced at the Amsterdam European Council. Technical discussions considered the opinion of the partially sighted and consumers as to their shape and composition.

On 1 July 00, the Euro will replace national currencies in the Member States joining the single currency. Between these two dates, prices will be displayed both in ECUs and in the national currency to help European consumers familiarise themselves gradually with the new currency.

Under protocols to the Treaty, the United Kingdom and Denmark reserve the right to opt out of Stage III even if they meet the economic performance criteria. Following a referendum Denmark stated that it did not intend to take part. Sweden also made clear its reservations.

In order to complete the provisions of the Maastricht Treaty, the European Council meeting on 17 June 17 in Amsterdam adopted two important resolutions

· the first one, known as the stability and growth pact, commits the Member States to keep to their budgets. This discipline will be guaranteed by multilateral supervision and a ban on excessive deficits.

· the other resolution concerns growth. It indicates whether the Member States and the Commission are firmly committed to providing the impetus for keeping jobs at the forefront of the Unions political concerns.

In the resolution on the coordination of the economic policies during Stage III of the EMU, which the European Council adopted in Luxembourg on 1 December 17, it took an important decision by stipulating that the Ministers of the Member States joining the EMU may meet together informally to discuss questions arising from the specific responsibilities they share under the single currency. The Heads of Government of the Fifteen thus opened the door to a process of strengthening joint membership, which could bring those countries which adopted the Euro in their economic, budget, social and tax policies even closer together, beyond monetary union itself.

The introduction of a single currency by the end of the century is the European Unions most ambitious goal yet. There are bound to be setbacks along the way which will test the political will of the Member States involved. The crucial question of public opinions acceptance of an innovation which directly affects the daily life of every citizen will also decide the success of the Euro.



The Timetable of the Euro 10 December 11 Treaty on the European Union signed · decision made to set up a monetary union and adopt five convergence criteria 1er January 14 second stage of the EMU (transitional period) · EMI set up in Frankfurt; · procedures strengthened for coordinating European economic policies; · excessive deficits fought and policy for economic convergence of the Member States; · independence of national central banks. 16 December 15 Madrid European Council · the name Euro adopted; · the technical procedure for introducing the Euro and the timetable for going over to the single currency established. 14 December 16 Dublin European Council · pact on budget stability and growth adopted · the Euro acquires legal status. 16 June 17 Amsterdam European Council · treaty on stability and growth confirmed; · regulations adopted on the legal status of the Euro; · EMS First Round for countries not involved in the single currency resolved; · design of the coins chosen. 1 December 17 Luxembourg European Council · coordination of economic policies during the third stage of the EMU (multilateral supervision) and Art. 10 and 10b of the Treaty resolved (exchange rate policy and the Communitys representation at international level) 1 and May 18 the European Council defines the list of countries joining the single currency based on the convergence criteria; · the European Parliament is consulted; · irreversible bilateral exchange rates set. In 18 European Central Bank (ECB) established, · Its executive committee appointed; · Production of coins and notes started.1 January 1 · third stage of the EMU; the Euro becomes a currency in its own right; · banks and businesses transfer to the Euro. 1 January 00 the Euro is introduced; coins and notes go into circulation. 1 July 00 at the latest the status of national coins and notes as legal currency is abolished.



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Robin Hood Case Study

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Introduction

Two years into his campaign against the Sheriff of Nottingham, Robin Hood was walking through Sherwood Forest. While walking Robin began to think of all of the problems he and his band of Merrymen were beginning to see. The numbers of his Merrymen were starting to rapidly increase. Along with this increase came a shortage of food. Furthermore travelers were beginning to travel around Sherwood Forest, cutting into the bands’ looting revenues. With the Sheriff growing stronger by the day, Robin must decide what to do in order to insure the success of his campaign.

1. What problems does Robin Hood have?

Robin Hood is faced with many problems. First he is faced with the increasing number of men. Due to the popularity of his crusade, more and more men are joining his campaign against the sheriff. This is a problem because, the more men there are the harder it is to feed and discipline them. With the Merrymen’s numbers growing, game in the forest is becoming less available. This is causing the men to find food from outside the forest, slowly diminishing the bankroll that had been created. The men are becoming less vigilant and more playful, making it harder for Little John to discipline and train.

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. What issues need to be addressed?

There are four issues that need to be addressed. First is the issue of food, with more men to feed food is becoming scarcer. Second is the fact that travelers are beginning to stay clear of Sherwood Forest. The third issue is more of a time issue. The fact that the sheriff is growing stronger means Robin has less time to make his move. Fourth is the issue with King Richard. Robin must decide whether or not to join the barons in the ransom of King Richard.

. Do Robin and the Merrymen need a new mission? New performance targets? A new strategy?

Robin and the Merrymen do not need a new mission; however they do need to develop a new strategy. Robin’s current strategy of living off of the forest and looting travelers as they pass has hit its limit. In order to insure the success of Robin and the Merrymens campaign a new strategy must be developed and quickly.

4. Continuing with the present strategy is not a viable option. A SWOT analysis can help sort out alternative courses Robin needs to consider

STRENGTHS

1. One of Robin’s greatest strengths is the size of his band of merry men.

. The reputation Robin and his men have developed could be of considerable strength to his cause.

. Having Will Scarlet as a spy is also helpful in planning raids and making defensive moves. This espionage is also useful in robbing tax collectors and merchants as they travel in and around Sherwood Forest.

4. Little Johns ability to keep the men’s archery at its peak performance.

5. The loyalty and willingness of Robin’s men. With great loyalty it is easier for Robin to have his decisions accepted and put into action.

6. The relationship between Robin and the barons who wish to have Prince John removed from power.

WEAKNESSES

1. Robin’s lack of influence over the English court and nobles.

. Robin’s emotions. If Robin acts with vengeance in mind, he could become distracted from the problems that he and his men face.

. The lack of Lieutenants within Robin’s band. With more men joining, it is becoming harder to discipline and train them.

4. The scarcity of provisions for the members of Robin’s merrymen.

OPPORTUNITIES

1.

THREATS

5. Does it make sense to impose a fixed transit tax to counter the decline in revenues?

6. What about expanding the band’s operations to geographical areas out and away from Sherwood Forest as a strategy of rejuvenating revenues and cash flows?

7. Why not try to end the campaign by killing the sheriff?

8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of accepting the offer of the barons to assist in securing King Richards release from prison?

. What action plan would you recommend to Robin?



10. How should Robin implement the recommended plan? What steps need to be taken to make the recommended strategy work successfully?



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patents in india

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on patents in india. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality patents in india paper right on time.

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What is a patent?

“A patent is defined as a monopoly right granted to a person who has invented a new and useful article or an improvement of an existing article or a new process of making an article.”

A patent does not give the inventor the right to use the invention. (The inventor of a new kind of nuclear bomb will not have the right to use it; similarly, a prior patent may block the inventors use.) A patent gives the inventor only the right to prevent others from making, using, selling, offering, or importing the subject matter claimed in the patent. The patent in the law, becomes the property of the inventor and it can be given away, inherited, sold, licensed and can even be abandoned.

The right subsists only for a limited period and at the expiry of the period, any person can make use of the invention. A patent is not granted for a mere idea or principle, but for some article or the process of making an article applying the idea. Patent rights are territorial; Indian Patent will give the holder rights within India only and the right to stop others from importing the patented products into India.

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Need for a patent

Inventions are built on ideas, followed by great deal of handwork in terms of study, research, and experimentation, review before the invention takes its proper form. It is necessary to patent the invention so that no one copies it without benefit to the inventor.

By patenting one enjoys the exclusive rights over the invention. If the inventor does not get the patent rights over his invention and introduce his product/process based on his invention in the market, any body can copy his invention and exploits it commercially. To debar others from using, selling or working out his invention, the inventor must go for getting a patent working out his invention, the inventor must go for getting a patent.

Government promotes patenting to encourage innovation and investment in the research and development activities so that there is economic, industrial and technological development in the country.

History of Patent

The first organized system of patents developed in Renaissance Italy. Émigr� Venetian glass blowers spread the system through Europe, to protect their skills against those local workers.

The first recorded patent of invention was granted to one John of Utynam. In 144, he was awarded a 0-year monopoly for a glass-making process previously unknown in England.

In India, the first legislative enactment of patents was the Act VI of 1856.

Types of Patents

The various types of patents are given and explained below.

 Process Patents

Process patents give the right to the method/process of manufacturing the product. Hence, the means to end are protected.

A process patent prohibits any person or organization, except the patentee, to make the same product using the same process. However, some other process may be used to produce the same product.

 Product Patents

Product patents give the right to the product itself. Here the end itself is protected.

A product patent prohibits any other person or organization to manufacture the patented product by any means.

 Design Patents

Design patents are granted to any person or organization that invents a new, original and ornamental design for an article of manufacture.

 Business and administrative method Patents

Business Method patents are granted to a company for coming out with a new business process or a new way of conducting one’s own business.

 Software Patents

The European Patent Office has recently started recognizing software programs as a patentable product. India, though, does not recognize software patents as yet.

At present, India has a patent law, which recognizes both products as well as process patents. However, for certain commodities such as food, medicine, drug, chemical substances (e.g. alloys, optical glass, semiconductors etc.) only process patent is recognized by the law with certain exceptions.



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organiationa

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Critical Thinking Article Summary and Critique

According to, Diane F. Halpern, critical thinking is the use of those cognitive skills or strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome. It is used to describe thinking that is purposeful, reasoned and goal directed - the kind of thinking involved in solving problems, formulating inferences, calculating likelihood’s, and making decisions when the thinker is using skills that are thoughtful and effective for the particular context and type of thinking task. Critical thinking also involves evaluating the thinking process - the reasoning that went into the conclusion weve arrived at the kinds of factors considered in making a decision. Critical thinking is sometimes called directed thinking because it focuses on a desired outcome.

In reading the article, The significant role of critical thinking in predicting auditing students’ performance, the author addressed many issues and resolutions such as the academic experience of students and how critical thinking effects this. The author stated that the results indicate that students with higher measures of critical thinking skills and past academic performance outperformed other students on both the third exam and a comprehensive final examination in auditing.

The purpose of critical thinking is, therefore, to achieve understanding, evaluate viewpoints, and solve problems. Since all three areas involve the asking of questions, we can say that critical thinking is the questioning or inquiry we engage in when we seek to understand, evaluate, or resolve.

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The author also uses logic in analyzing the critical thinking situation. He also had a valued perception of critical thinking. He made comments that make us think that critical thinking is a very important of our everyday. He also dealt with arguments towards the article very well. When using inserts and quotes from others she made is judgment and accepted it as that but never did he critique the author. The author opinion was respected and left as is.

The author also talked about who should have more critical thinking skills and why. For example, she thought that controllers and external auditors should possess more critical thinking skills because their profession requires that an individual possess a proper degree of skepticism, as well as proper use of analytical programs.

To conclude, critical thinking is an important part of our professional and personal lives because some of what occurs on a daily basis depends on how we think, how we analyze certain situations and how we deal with them.



Please note that this sample paper on organiationa is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on organiationa, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on organiationa will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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