Thursday, June 30, 2011

Animal farm revolution

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“Only the mob and the elite can be attracted by the momentum of totalitarianism itself. The masses have to be won by propaganda.” This quote comes from Hannah Arendt a German-born U.S. political philosopher who wrote The Origins of Totalitarianism. This quote describes one of the many ways the farm in the book Animal Farm transcended from utopian communism towards a totalitarian state. Other factors such as ensuing fear among the masses and a veiled sense of community brought on by work also aided in the transformation.


The use of propaganda played a key role in the transition from a path towards utopian communism to a path towards a totalitarian state. Propaganda was used to convince the other animals that the hard work and controlled life they were living was what was best for them. It was also a tactic used to keep any other revolts against Napoleon from occurring. Squealer was the main representation of the propaganda. His convincing speeches eased the animal’s troubled minds. The ferocious and violent dogs also often accompanied Squealer to use fear to remove any doubts that could possibly be left.


Instilling a sense of fear among the animals was another way the utopian society slowly began to change into a totalitarian. The use of the dogs causes fright among the animals whenever an event occurs that could instigate the animals to question their new way of life. Whereas at first there was to be no harm to any animal, violence was now being used to control the animals. Using terror and fear to suppress any opposition, the dogs help Napoleon maintain power. The dogs were also used to force the animals to work. Such violence was another strategy that allowed the pigs to keep control over the animals.


A false sense of community was perpetuated among the animals by forcing them to work. Feeling as though they belonged made the animals easier to persuade and control. Boxer and Clover are two good examples of how working made them feel like they had purpose. They became faithful, hard working and rarely doubted the system. Since they were also of the least intelligence, they were easily influenced to work more. At first the rewards of the work were given to all, but as time continued it was only those in charge who reaped benefits.


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In the Animal Farm, the original rebellion brought on by the animals began as a utopian communism. However, as time passed the pigs began to take control and different factors, such as propaganda, fear and a sense of community, caused the farm to begin to resemble a totalitarian state. Only with these factors could the mob convert the mass to its system.





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Teen Rehabilitation vs. Juvenile Justice

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Teen Rehabilitation vs. Juvenile Justice


The use of drugs by teenagers has led to a rapidly growing number of teenagers who are seriously addicted to anything from alcohol to heroin. As a consequence of their constant interaction with drugs, these teens eventually get caught using. When this happens, they are put into the juvenile penitentiary system. With each offense, more and more time is spent in county facilitated juvenile detention centers, otherwise known as correctional facilities or juvenile halls. The current approach to solving the drug abuse problem is punishing the user rather then fixing the problem. My personal experience has led me believe that drug addiction cannot be solved with punishment. I do believe, however, that there are programs that can help.


America has recognized that drug use is a serious problem, and in response our country has waged a war on drugs. The crack cocaine boom in the mid eighties resulted in a sharp increase in the number of teens involved with drugs. So, America began to “crack down” on teen drug users. Every year millions of dollars are spent in California alone to increase the efficiency of the juvenile justice system. With stricter punishments for repeated offenses, juvenile police officers at schools, and the constant building of bigger detention facilities, the war is taking place in the teen world just as much as in adult life.


However, with all the money and energy being put into punishing drug users, the results are not matching the efforts. In 00, the percentage rate of teens who repeated offenses after being released from juvenile detention centers was 50-70% (“Alternative Ways of Dealing with Juvenile Crime”, par. ). Some people believe that this means we should be building bigger detention centers and increasing punishment for repeat offenders. But, can punishment cure drug addiction?


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Once casual use turns into constant abuse, quitting is not easy. Even after the youth decides that they no longer want to use, quitting may not be possible without help. Some cannot stop, because quitting some drugs, like alcohol can kill you. Heroin withdrawals are so painful many cannot get through the first day. For others, quitting drugs is socially not acceptable, especially when gangs are involved. Every day teens overdose, get in car accidents, or die simply because their bodies are too run down from drug use. Addiction is a powerful disease and the effects on teens are severe.


I can only speak from personal experience when looking at how drug addiction is effected by punishment. From what I have seen, time in juvenile halls, or even in juvenile prisons, does not have very much of an impact on drug addiction. Most of my friends over the last five years have been serious drug addicts. Nearly all of these friends have spent time in juvenile hall. I have seen friend after friend go in just to come back out and return to the same drugs, the same parties, the same life. Some cannot make it through probation, and end up in prison. Those who can fake success until they get off probation are even worse off. Many of the girls I used to party with are pregnant or have kids. My whole group rarely goes a month without getting together. The thing is, it is not to party anymore. It is to go to funerals. There are a few of us who are free, alive, childless, and still use. I am most afraid for them, because every time I see them I fear that they will be next.


I myself am a serious drug addict. I have been addicted to everything except shooting heroin. I got arrested for the first time when I was 16. I was in and out of juvenile hall for months from then on. After the fourth time, I started to realize that I was really out of control and I needed help. Every time I went in I would swear that it was the last time and when I got out I would never use again, but every time I broke that promise to myself. Realizing that I had a problem made me use with a frenzy that started to slowly drive me insane. I lost my job, dropped out of school, and never went home. I acted out in such crazy ways that my friends began to wonder if I was bipolar or schizophrenic. I began to suffer from malnutrition and my teeth became loose. The punishment system was not helping me.


The last time I got arrested I was not released in the first few days. I went through painful withdrawals. I had suggested to my probation officer before that I might need to be placed in a rehabilitation program, and she had always responded that the county did not have the resources to send me. When I began to black out from withdrawals she wrote to the county and demanded that they place me into a rehabilitation program that could properly take care of me. They consented and I was shipped 00 mile away from home to an in-placement rehabilitation facility.


The program I went into probably saved my life, and I hated every minute I was there. After three months of my eighteen month sentence, I ran away. But three months of rigorous treatment had already taken effect. Drugs were too emotionally and physically draining after months of sobriety. My mind had been cleared long enough for me to remember what I wanted to do with my life. I spent a week trying to drown out the memory of the program with more drugs. It didn’t work. So I sobered up and went in search of more help. Since I had been gone from home, California had set up a program that provided me with counseling three times a week and group counseling sessions with other kids in my position. I began attending Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous (AA/NA) meetings and got what they call a sponsor, which is someone to help you achieve sobriety and clarity. It was not easy. But with the help of all these programs simultaneously I would not be where I am today.


I am not the only one who has found help through one program or another. My NA groups are full of recovered addicts from all walks of life. In my teen groups, ten of us talk about what it is like for us to try to stay sober. We all slip up once in while, but for the most part we stay clean. Everyday, across the country, rehabilitation facilities release drug addicts to be healthy and productive members of society. My experiences have led me to believe that there are alternatives to penitentiaries that are actually effective in helping teens get back control over their lives and their addictions.


There are a limited amount of free programs, open to anyone with a drug problem. There are twelve step to sobriety programs called Narcotics Anonymous (NA) available in almost every city in America. These are groups where all addicts are welcome to share their “experience, strength, and hope” with other users, get advice, and listen to the experiences of others. They offer a book with 1 steps that others have taken to achieve recovery. In this program you are encouraged to find a sponsor to help you though the steps .Some people do not like these groups, while others find them very helpful. There is also Behavior Health Services in California, which offers free counseling to anyone for whom drugs are causing a problem in their life. An intake is done to make sure the clients problems are really cause by drugs, to weed out the people looking for free counseling. There are experimental programs throughout the country, but many of them fold because the public does not support them and state funds often go to juvenile penitentiaries.


Politicians are supporting the penitentiary system, offering millions of dollars to counties who promise to build bigger juvenile halls and enforce stricter punishment. Money that could be spent on creating better after school programs, more teen counselors, educating teens, and rehabilitating teenage drug addicts is being spent on hiring guards. “It was estimated in August 14 that the cost of jailing a juvenile in Los Angeles was $45,000 per year in contrast to $000 per year to put a youth through a year of intervention programs” (“Juvenile Detention Grows Up”). If the funding was redirected, more programs could be created and be accessible to teens.


Unfortunately, programs that work the most effectively are hard to get into and expensive. Live in rehabilitation centers are developed to combine a number of techniques used to help teens get off drugs. But the waiting lists are long and they generally accept people who are in the hospital or jail after drug overdoses first. The rehab center I went to charged my parent $,000 a month. It operated on a sliding scale and we paid less then a lot of parents. Many kids who really need these services simply do not have the money to pay for them. However, if a portion of the money being spent on improving juvenile halls was spent on funding programs to make them more economically effective, the prices could go down enough for them to be available to teens from all walks of life.


Teen drug addiction is dangerous to everyone in our society. Drugs are the cause of many robberies, violent acts, and suicides. If the drug problems of teens are corrected, other types of crime will go down also. Teen drug addiction turns into adult drug addiction. If the problem can be stopped before teens reach adult-hood, adult drug addiction and the problems it causes will go down too. We need to begin taking serious action, because without the outrageous drug abuse rates we could be a much healthier, happier society.


Works Cited


Alternative Ways of Dealing with Juvenile Crime (sidebar). Issues and Controversies,


November 00. FACTS.com. 5 Apr.00 http//www. facts. com/ICOF /Search/ib70570.asp .


“Juvenile Detention Grows Up.” Africa 000 Media Group. 5 Apr. 00


http//www.africa000.com/cndx/prison5.htm.








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Wednesday, June 29, 2011

cystic fibrosis

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Biology


April 0,00


Throuhg out the years many diseases have been spred. One of these diseases is called Cystic Fibrosis (CF), this is a condition that affects the respiratory and the digestive system. This occurs when a person has a defective gene that makes the body produce abnormal thick mucus. In the earlyer years children who had CF lived to about the age of . A doctor who was performing an autopsy on a child who died from CF noticed that there were a few changes in the organs. one of The main changes she noticed was the destruction of the pancreas. She also noticed infection and damaging of the lungs. By the year 146 researchers noticed a pattern, they found out that this disease is genetic. They also realized that this is caused because of a mutation in the gene. Today in the United States a total of 0,000 people have a copy of the defective gene.


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About 0,000 children in the United States only have Cystic Fibrosis. Out of 1 Americans only 1 person will carry the defective gene. Just because this person has the gene does not necessarily mean that they have the disease it self. This disease affects mostly 5% of white Americans. One in about ,500 Europeans has the disease.


This diseas is genitic, They must have two genes that are not normal to have the disease, One from your mother and one from your father. A person who has on gene with the copy of CFand one normal gene is called a carrier.since he gene that is normal dominates so that person does not have CF. If a childs father has a normal gene and mother an abnormal gene, and they have a child that child has a chance of not having the disease, if he inherits a normal and abnormal copy of the gene he will not have the disease. If the child has both abnormal genes from both parents the child will have CF. A child who carries a normal copy of the gene from one parent and an abnormal copy from the mother will be known as a CF carrier. The CF carrier will not have the disease. Its been said by many doctors and scientist that when both parents carry the one abnormal gene there is a 5% chance that Around the150s children who had Cystic Fibrosis did not live very long. Today people with this disease tend to live longer because of medical improvements. The mucus that is produced by this gene clogs the lungs, which could lead to sinus infection and trouble breathing. This mucus can block the tubes of the pancreas that will stop the digestive enzymes from reaching the intestines. So the people with CF will not receive enough nutrients from the food that they eat. People with CF can not maintain a healthy diet they gain and loose wait. This disease also affects the reproductive system in both women and men. In women the secretions can block the sperm entry and prevent the women from getting pregnant. Most men with CF can not produce or produce very little sperm. Secretions in men can also block the tubes that carry the sperm..About 0,000 children in the United States only have Cystic Fibrosis. Out of 1 Americans only 1 person lives with one defective gene. Just because this person has the gene does not necessarily mean that they have the disease. This disease is not contagious in order to get it you must inherit a defective gene from both parents. Usually salt and water easily moves through the cells. CF interrupts the way salt and water moves in and out of mucus producing cells.


For this type of disease there are many kinds of symptoms for example the first symptom in CF is a simple cough which leads to a lung infection. Meconium lleus. This is when a baby is born with a blockage of the bowel. Usually a black substance comes out after birth in the first few days. Sometimes this does not happen and surgery is needed or the baby will not survive. Bright bowel this is when doctors can see Meconium lleus developing in the uterus. When this happens the baby will be born with CF. Big greasy smelly stools that float in water, farting that results because of lack of pancreatic enzymes to digest food regularly. A person with CF might not gain weight or grow. Infection of the lungs and nose (sinus) will keep coming back. Along with the previous symptoms there are many more not mentioned.


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San Antonio De Padua

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San Antonio de Padua. Page 1


My mission is called San Antonio de Padua and it is the rd mission in the chain. It was named after Saint Anthony. San Antonio de Padua was founded on July 4,1771 by Father Junipero Serra. This mission is located 5 miles northwest of the community of Jolon in Monterey County.


Father Serra held a bell in an oak tree and rang it and said,” Ye Gentiles,” and got an indian’s attention. Serra gave him gifts. The same day he walked towards him with his people. In 1805 there were more than 100 Indians at the mission.


Father Buenaventuran Sitjar served San Antoniode Padua and made some dams and aqueducts to use for irrigation on farming undertakings. The remnants of this early water system, along with a grim still, are still there. Because of its location it was badly damaged after secularization in 184. The formidable task of restoration began in 10, and the mission is now an accurate replica of the original.


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My mission is called San Antonio de Padua and it is the third mission in the chain. This mission was named after Saint Anthony. San Antonio de Padua was founded on July 14,1771by Father Junipero Serra. This mission is located five miles northwest of the community of Jolon in Monterey County.


During the years of the mission being populated with Indians, it grew slowly and steadily. Later, though secularization became known around the mission and diseases began to quickly spread. Soon the mission would be abandoned by the Indians.


Father Buenaventura Sitjar, who has been there for 7 years, served San Antonio de Padua and made some dams and aqueducts to use for irrigation on farming undertakings. The bits and pieces of this early water system are still there today. The difficult task of restoring this once beautiful site started in 10 and this mission is now a close match to the original one. Before, the mission was used as a training school for brothers of the order, but that is not the case anymore. Today, the mission is an active Catholic parish that is open to the public and is used as private retreats and even holds an annual Fiesta Fundraiser to raise money for the upkeeping of the building and grounds. It is and will remain a memorable site.





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Tuesday, June 28, 2011

The metamorphosis

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In chapter one, Gregor Samsa awakes one morning to finds out that he has been transformed into a giant insect. As soon as he realizes that he’s a bug, he also finds out that he overslept. His parents and his sister Grete try to wake him up so he can make it to his job as a traveling salesman. The family depends on him for its livelihood. When a clerk from his company comes to his house to find out why he wasn’t at work, Gregor tried to open the do and show himself. This makes the terrified clerk run down the stairwell and Gregors family becomes shocked. Grete, Gregor’s sister takes care of Gregor more than her family. She feeds him and cleans his room. But after the family realizes that they all need to get jobs, everyone pays less attention to Gregor. But when he gets out of his room, that’s when everyone gives their attention to him. But it doesn’t help because Gregor doesn’t know how to express himself to his family. They become scared and disgusted by his appearance, so his father throws an apple at Gregor and he gets and big wound. To make some money, the family decides to take in three lodgers, using Gregors room to store all the extra furniture. Yet the family does leave Gregors door slightly open in the evenings, so that he can see what is going on in the household. One evening, the lodgers hear Grete practicing her violin. They call her into the living room, so she can play in front of them. Since Gregor loves her playing so much that he creeps out and starts walking towards her, trying to tell her that he sees her talent and will help it blossom. After the lodgers see Gregor, they start yelling and asking why haven’t they been seen this insect before. Then they say that because of this incident they will not pay the rent and leave immediately the next day. This is the breaking point for the family. Grete declares that they cannot take care of Gregor anymore and if this would be


the real Gregor then he would leave the house. After all the talking they decide that they have to get rid of him. Unfortunately they don’t get to see him after that night, because he dies. After a second of mourning, the father tells the lodgers to leave immediately. Then they move to the countryside. At the end, the author describes a beautiful, sunny day, and Grete’s parents think of finding her a husband.


In the beginning, when Gregor is transformed, you can definitely see that he is not surprised at all. He becomes an insect and the only thought that bothers him is the fact that he cannot get up for work. This implies that his job is his first priority and being an insect does not surprise him at all. There are three points in chapter one to back up this idea. After he starts to feel an ache on his body, he begins to think, “Oh God, he thought, what an exhausting job I’ve picked on!” Then he looks at the clock and realizes that he overslept and missed the train. He starts worrying about how he will get to work. Last example is when a clerk from his company comes to his house, Gregor is not worried at all by his appearance and he tries to open the door to show the clerk the reason he didn’t come to work. Naturally, the clerk was horrified and ran away.


After Gregor woke up and felt an ache on his body, he immediately remembered that he has a job, which he absolutely hates. If this had happened to a normal person, the person would probably have a heart attack. At first he talks about his new body and then he starts rambling on about his work. This shows his indifference to the situation and that he accepts this transformation like it was supposed to happen.


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After he’s done thinking of how much he hates his job, he realizes that he is late for work. How can you be worried about getting to work, when you just turned into an insect? It looks like the more he is worried about his job; the closer he gets to fully transforming into a bug. His indifference gives a push to his metamorphosis. For example, when he tries to get out of his room to get to work, his voice starts to change. When he yells to his mother that he’ll be right now, she even notices the change in his voice.


At last, when a clerk from his company comes to his house, Gregor is worried about getting the door open so he can show him why he didn’t come to work. The thought that everyone might be horrified didn’t even cross his mind. The only thing that he thought about is getting out, showing why he was late and getting to work. This situation repeats in this story, when he decides to come out of his room while his sister is playing the violin. He also does not think that it will scare his family, not to mention the lodgers.


Through the whole story, his family is more upset about his metamorphosis than he is. While his sister is worried about what food he wants to eat, he climbs on walls and swings from the ceiling. While his mother tries to get the furniture out of the room so it would be more comfortable for him, he is worried about the picture. Overall, the transformation was not completed until he became totally indifferent to the situation.





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Monday, June 27, 2011

racism

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Racism has been an issue around the world as far back as when British settlers started exploring the world and running into people that lived in these places they were traveling to. World war two started in Germany at 1 and finally ended in 145, this tragic event that had hundreds of thousands of people killed was all because of a few men that hated Jews Adolph Hitler and his partners in crime, the prime minister of Italy, at the time, Benito Mussolini, and several leaders of Japan. Hitler hated Jews and gypsies he had segregated them by putting them into concentration camps. The guards there would make them do work and once they became useless they would kill them by sending them into gas rooms that were disguised as showers here they would die. But thankfully the United States put an end to this. In the United States black people or perhaps Negro’s were taken from Africa and brought to America to become slaves. The Southern parts of the U.S. were using black people to be their slaves, while the north part of the U.S. was anti-racist. In 1861 the civil war started between the northern and southern part of the United States. Finally in 1865 the war was finished slavery in the U.S. was over the north was victorious. But however this did not stop racism in the U.S. white people were still bullying black people. This topic did not stop until Dr Martin Luther King jr. and other black leaders organized a civil rights march in 16 on Washington. At this march Martin Luther King addressed his I have a dream speech I quote “I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.” This however didn’t completely stop racism in the U.S. but it was a start every thing was beginning to come together black people did not have to sit at the back of the bus anymore and were getting as many privileges as a white man. But even though after all these events that have taken place, today people are still racist but by addressing my speech here today I hope I can make an impact on some people and make them think twice about racism.


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Sunday, June 26, 2011

aids

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Introduction


AIDS is a life and death issue. To have the AIDS disease is at present a sentence of slow but inevitable death. Ive already lost one friend to AIDS. I may soon lose others. My own sexual behavior and that of many of my friends has been profoundly altered by it. In my part of the country, one man in 10 may already be carrying the AIDS virus. While the figures may currently be less in much of the rest of the country, this is changing rapidly. There currently is neither a cure, nor even an effective treatment, and no vaccine either. But there are things that have been PROVEN immensely effective in slowing the spread of this hideously lethal disease. In this essay I hope to present this information. History and


Overview


AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Defficiency Disease. It is caused by a virus.


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The disease originated somewhere in Africa about 0 years ago. There it first appeared as a mysterious ailment afflicting primarily heterosexuals of both sexes. It probably was spread especially fast by primarily female prostitutes there. AIDS has already become a crisis of STAGGERING proportions in parts of Africa. In Zaire, it is estimated that over twenty percent of the adults currently carry the virus. That figure is increasing. And what occurred there will, if no cure is found, most likely occur here among heterosexual folks.


AIDS was first seen as a disease of gay males in this country. This was a result of the fact that gay males in this culture in the days before AIDS had an average of 00 to 400 new sexual contacts per year. This figure was much higher than common practice among heterosexual (straight) men or women. In addition, it turned out that rectal sex was a particularly effective way to transmit the disease, and rectal sex is a common practice among gay males. For these reasons, the disease spread in the gay male population of this country immensely more quickly than in other populations. It became to be thought of as a gay disease. Because the disease is spread primarily by exposure of ones blood to infected blood or semen, I.V. drug addicts who shared needles also soon were identified as an affected group. As the AIDS epidemic began to affect increasingly large fractions of those two populations (gay males and IV drug abusers), many of the rest of this society looked on smugly, for both populations tended to be despised by the mainstream of society here.


But AIDS is also spread by heterosexual sex. In addition, it is spread by blood transfusions. New born babies can acquire the disease from infected mothers during pregnancy. Gradually more and more mainstream folks got the disease. Most recently, a member of congress died of the disease. Finally, even the national news media began to join in the task of educating the public to the notion that AIDS can affect everyone.


Basic medical research began to provide a few bits of information, and some help. The virus causing the disease was isolated and identified. The AIDS virus turned out to be a very unusual sort of virus. Its genetic material was not DNA, but RNA. When it infected human cells, it had its RNA direct the synthesis of viral DNA. While RNA viruses are not that uncommon, very few RNA viruses reproduce by setting up the flow of information from RNA to DNA. Such reverse or retro flow of information does not occur at all in any DNA virus or any other living things. Hence, the virus was said to belong to the rare group of virues called Retro Viruses. Research provided the means to test donated blood for the presence of the antibodies to the virus, astronomically reducing the chance of ones getting AIDS from a blood transfusion. This was one of the first real breakthroughs. The same discoveries that allowed us to make our blood bank blood supply far safer also allowed us to be able to tell (in most cases) whether one has been exposed to the AIDS virus using a simple blood test.


The Types of AIDS Infection


When the AIDS virus gets into a persons body, the results can be broken down into three general types of situations AIDS disease, ARC, and asymptomatic seropositive condition.


The AIDS disease is characterized by having ones immune system devastated by the AIDS virus. One is said to have the disease if one contracts particular varieties (Pneumocystis, for example) of pneumonia, or one of several particular varieties of otherwise rare cancers (Kaposis Sarcoma, for example). This disease is inevitably fatal. Death occurs often after many weeks or months of expensive and painful hospital care. Most folks with the disease can transmit it to others by sexual contact or other exposure of an uninfected persons blood to the blood or semen of the infected person.


There is also a condition referred to as ARC (Aids Related Complex). In this situation, one is infected with the AIDS virus and ones immune system is compromised, but not so much so that one gets the (ultimately lethal) cancers or pneumonias of the AIDS disease. One tends to be plagued by frequent colds, enlarged lymph nodes, and the like. This condition can go on for years. One is likely to be able to infect others if one has ARC. Unfortunately, all those with ARC are currently felt to eventually progress to getting the full blown AIDS disease.


There are, however, many folks who have NO obvious signs of disease what so ever, but when their blood serum is tested they show positive evidence of having been exposed to the virus. This is on the basis of the fact that antibodies to the AIDS virus are found in their blood. Such asymptomatic but seropositive folks may or may not carry enough virus to be infectious. Most sadly, though, current research and experience with the disease would seem to indicate that EVENTUALLY nearly all folks who are seropostive will develop the full blown AIDS disease. There is one ray of hope here It may in some cases take up to 15 years or more between ones becoming seropositive for the AIDS virus and ones developing the disease. Thus, all those millions (soon to be tens and hundreds of millions) who are now seropositive for AIDS are under a sentence of death, but a sentence that may not be carried out for one or two decades in a significan fraction of cases. Medical research holds the possibility of commuting that sentence, or reversing it.


There is one other fact that needs to be mentioned here because it is highly significant in determining recommendations for safe sexual conduct which will be discussed below Currently, it is felt that after exposure to the virus, most folks will turn seropositive for it (develop a positive blood test for it) within four months. It is currently felt that if you are sexually exposed to a person with AIDS and do not become seropositive within six months after that exposure, you will never become seropositive as a result of that exposure.


Just to confuse the issue a little, there are a few folks whose blood shows NO antibodies to the virus, but from whom live virus has been cultured. Thus, if one is seronegative, it is not absolute proof one is not exposed to the virus. This category of folks is very hard to test for, and currently felt to be quite rare. Some even speculate that such folks may be rare examples of those who are immune to the effects of the virus, but this remains speculation. It is not known if such folks can also transmit the virus.


Transmission of AIDS


The AIDS virus is extremely fragile, and is killed by exposure to mild detergents or to chlorox, among other things. AIDS itself may be transmitted by actual virus particles, or by the transmission of living human CELLS that contain AIDS viral DNA already grafted onto the human DNA. Or both. Which of these two mechanisms is the main one is not known as I write this essay. But the fact remains that it is VERY hard to catch AIDS unless one engages in certain specific activities.


What will NOT transmit AIDS?


Casual contact (shaking hands, hugging, sharing tools) cannot transmit AIDS. Although live virus has been recovered from saliva of AIDS patients, the techniques used to do this involved concentrating the virus to extents many thousands of times greater than occurs in normal human contact, such as kissing (including deep or French kissing). Thus, there remains no solid evidence that even deep kissing can transmit AIDS. Similarly, there is no evidence that sharing food or eating utensils with an AIDS patient can transmit the virus. The same is true for transmission by sneezing or coughing. There just is no current evidence that the disease can be transmitted that way.The same may be true even for BITING,though here there may be some increased (though still remote) chance of transmitting the disease.


The above is very important. It means that there is NO medical reason WHAT SO EVER to recommend that AIDS suffers or AIDS antibody positive folks be quarrantined. Such recommendations are motivated either by ignorance or by sinister desires to set up concentration camps. Combined with the fact that the disease is already well established in this country, the above also means that there is no rational medical basis for immigration laws preventing visits by AIDS suffers or antibody positive persons.


The above also means that friends and family and coworkers of AIDS patients and seropostive persons have nothing to fear from such casual contact. There is no reason to not show your love or concern for a friend with AIDS by embracing the person. Indeed, there appears still to be NO rational basis for excluding AIDS suffers from food preparation activity. Even if an AIDS suffer cuts his or her finger and bleeds into the salad or soup, most of the cells and virus will die, in most cases, before the food is consumed. In addition, it is extremely difficult to get successfully attacked by AIDS via stuff you eat.


AIDS cannot be transmitted by the act of GIVING blood to a blood bank. All equipment used for such blood donation is sterile, and is used just once, and then discarded.


How is AIDS transmitted?


Sexual activity is one of the primary ways AIDS is transmitted. AIDS is transmitted particulary by the transmission of blood or semen of an infected person into contact with the blood of an uninfected person. Sex involving penetration of the penis into either the vagina of a woman or the rectum of either a woman or a man has a very high risk of transmitting the disease. It is felt to be about four times MORE likely for an infected male to transmit AIDS to an uninfected woman in the course of vaginal sex than it is likely for an infected woman to transmit AIDS to an uninfected male. This probably relates to the greater area of moist tissue in a womans vagina, and to the relative liklihood of microscopic tears to occur in that tissue during sex. But the bottom line is that AIDS can be transmitted in EITHER direction in the case of heterosexual sex. Transmission among lesbians (homosexual females) is rare.


Oral sex is an extremely common form of sexual activity among both gay and straight folks. Such activity involves contact of infected semen or vaginal secretions with the mouth, esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth with the stomach) and the stomach. AIDS virus and infected cells most certainly cannot survive the acid environment of the stomach. Yet, it is still felt that there is a chance of catching the disease by having oral sex with an infected person. The chance is probably a lot smaller than in the case of vaginal or rectal sex, but is still felt to be significant.


As mentioned above, AIDS is also transmitted among intravenous drug users by the sharing of needles. Self righteous attitudes by the political leaders of this country at local, state, and national levels have repeatedly prevented the very rational approach of providing free access to sterile intravenous equipment for IV drug users. This measure, when taken promptly in Amsterdam, was proven to greatly and SIGNIFICANTLY slow the spread of the virus in that population. The best that rational medical workers have succeeded in doing here in San Francisco is distribute educational leaflets and cartoons to the I.V. drug abusing population instructing them in the necessity of their rinsing their works with chlorox before reusing the same needle in another person. Note that even if you dont care what happens to I.V. drug abusers, the increase in the number of folks carrying the virus ultimately endangers ALL living persons. Thus, the issue is NOT what you morally think of I.V. drug addicts, but one of what is the most rational way to slow the spread of AIDS in all populations.


Testing of donated blood for AIDS has massivly reduced the chance of catching AIDS from blood transfusions. But a very small risk still remains. To further reduce that risk, efforts have been made to use autotransfusions in cases of elective surgery (surgery that can be planned months in advance). Autotransfusion involves the patient storing their own blood a couple of weeks prior to their own surgery, to be used during the surgery if needed. Similary, setting up donations of blood from friends and family known to be antibody negative and at low risk for AIDS prior to schedualed surgery further can decrease the already small risks from transfusion.


AIDS and SEX What are the rational options?


The sexual revolution of the 160s has been stopped dead in its tracks by the AIDS epidemic. The danger of contracting AIDS is so real now that it has massively affected the behavior of both gay and straight folks who formerly had elected to lead an active sexual life that included numerous new sexual contacts.


Abstinence


The safest option regarding AIDS and sex is total abstinence from all sexual contact. For those who prefer to indulge in sexual contact, this is often far too great a sacrifice. But it IS an option to be considered.


Safe Sex


For those who wish to have sexual contact with folks on a relatively casual basis, there have been devised rules for safe sex. These rules are very strict, and will be found quite objectionable by most of us who have previously enjoyed unrestricted sex. But to violate these rules is to risk unusually horrible death. Once one gets used to them, tho, the rule for safe sex do allow for quite acceptable sexual enjoyment in most cases.


For those who wish to indulge in pentration of the vagina or rectum by a penis The penis MUST be sheathed in a condom or rubber. This must be done religiously, and NO exceptions are allowed. A condom must be used by a man even when he is receiving oral sex. Cunnilingus (oral stimulation of a womans gentitals by the mouth of a lover) is NOT considerd to be safe sex. Safe sex includes mutual masturbation, and the stimultion of one genitals by anothers hand (provided there are no cuts in the skin on that hand). But manual stimulation of anothers genitals is NOT safe if one has cuts on ones hands, unless one is wearing a glove.


Note that even when one is conscientiously following the recommendations for safe sex, accidents can happen. Condoms can break. One may have small cuts or tears in ones skin that one is unaware of. Thus, following rules for safe sex does NOT guarantee that one will not get AIDS. It does, however, greatly reduce the chances. There are many examples of sexaully active couples where one member has AIDS disease and the other remains seronegative even after many months of safe sex with the diseased person. It is particularly encouraging to note that, due to education programs among San Francisco gay males, the incidence of new cases of AIDS infection among that high risk group has dropped massively. Between practice of safe sex and a significant reduction in the number of casual sexual contacts, the spread of AIDS is being massively slowed in that group. Similar responsible action MUST be taken by straight folks to further slow the spread of AIDS, to give our researchers time to find the means to fight it.


Monogamy


For those who would have sexual activity, the safest approach in this age of AIDS is monogamous sex. Specifically, both parties in a couple must commit themselves to not having sex with anyone else. At that time they should take AIDS antibody tests. If the tests are negative for both, they must practice safe sex until both members of the couple have been greater than six months since sexual contact with anyone else. At that time the AIDS blood test is repeated. If both tests remain negative six months after ones last sexual contact with any other party, current feeling is that it is now safe to have unprotected sex. Note that this approach is recommended especially for those who wish to have children, to prevent the chance of having a child be born infected with AIDS, getting it from an infected mother. Note also that this approach can be used by groups of three or more people, but it must be adhered to VERY strictly.


What to AVOID


Unscrupulous folks have begun to sell the idea that one should pay to take an AIDS antibody test, then carry an ID card that certifies one as AIDS antibody negative, as a ticket to being acceptable in a singles bar. This is criminal greed and stupidity. First, one can turn antibody positive at any time. Even WEEKLY testing will not pick this change up soon enough to prevent folks certified as negative from turning positive between tests. Much worse, such cards are either directly or implicitly promoted as a SUBSTITUTE for safe sex practices. This can only hasten the spread of the disease.


If you want to learn your antibody status, be sure to do so ANONYMOUSLY. Do NOT get the test done by any agency that requires your real name, address, or any other identifying information. Fortunately, in San Francisco, there is a public place to get AIDS antibody testing where you may identify yourself only as a number. Tho that place has a three month long waiting list for testing, there are other private clinics where one may have the test done for cash, and may leave any false name one wishes. The reason I suggest this is that currently there are some very inappropriate reactions by government and business to folks known to be antibody positive. Protect yourself from such potential persection by preventing your antibody status from being a matter of record. That information is for you, your lover(s), and (if need be) your physician. And for NO one else.


There currently is NO treatment for AIDS (this includes AZT) that shows significant promise.


In Conclusion


It is my own strongly held view, and that of the medical and research community world wide, that the AIDS epidemic is a serious problem, with the potential to become the worst plague this species has ever known. This is SERIOUS business. VASTLY greater sums should be spent on searching for treatments and vaccines. On the other hand, we feel strongly that this is merely a disease, not an act by a supernatural power. And while it does not seem likely we will find either a cure or a vaccine in the forseeable future, it may be that truly effective treatments that can indefinitely prolong the life of AIDS victims may be found in the next few years. When science and technology do finally fully conquer AIDS, we can go back to deciding what sort and how much sex to have with who ever we choose on the basis of our own personal choice, and not by the coercion of a speck of proteins and RNA. May that time come soon. In the mean time, we must all do what we can to slow the spread of this killer. This article is intended to help accomplish that. Please circulate it as widely as possible.





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Ignoring the Great Chain of Being: Chaos in King Lear

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Humans, like all creatures, have the privilege of the freedom of choice. There are two broad ranges of factors that affect the decisions that a person makes. The first factor that affects decision making is internal, and includes a person’s character and intellect. The second factor is external, including such things as environment and interaction with other people. Naturally, each decision a person makes results in a repercussion of some degree, usually either helpful or hindering, and rarely inconsequential.


The concept of justice and revenge is based on the fact that decisions are always followed by consequences. It strictly adheres to the rewarding of good deeds and the punishment of bad deeds. Thus, some would argue that repercussions resulting from deeds � whether good or bad � are more a natural event than a man-made one. If one were to abide by the way nature intended things, resulting repercussions would always be good. Conversely, if one were to disrupt the way nature intended things, nature gets its revenge.


Revenge is often thought to be “blood and guts,” manifesting itself in the forms of pain or even death. Likewise, revenge is often thought to be the result of a disastrous deed, a deed that is typically agreed upon to have been not just wrong but also heinous. My own definition of revenge, however, is not nearly as cut-and-dried. I would argue that revenge is often subtle, often pain-free, and often well deserved. I would argue that revenge is a very personal and very individual matter, wearing many different faces. While looked upon by some as a harsh and rash reaction to having been wronged, revenge is always appropriate and just to he who is the revenger. Consequences resulting from one’s actions are a form of revenge; a revenge doled out by nature.


William Shakespeare’s King Lear is a grave tragedy that is a prime example of the Elizabethan concept of nature’s justice and revenge. Lear’s kingdom, in my opinion, turns to chaos and vengeance befalls many characters because of a break in the Great Chain of Being. Normalcy is restored only when justice prevails. The Great Chain of Being represents an Elizabethan belief in the order of the universe, its premise being that every existing thing in the universe has its place in a divinely planned hierarchical order (Lovejoy 7). This is visualized as a chain vertically extended. An object’s place on the Chain depends on the relative proportion of spirit and matter it contains; the less spirit and the more matter, the lower down it stands. The Chain consists of six links God, Spiritual Beings, Man, Animals, Plants, and Inanimate Objects. Simply put, when one part of the Chain is disturbed, order turns into chaos.


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According to this concept, all existing things have their precise place and function in the universe, and to depart from one’s proper place is to betray one’s nature. Human beings, as noted, are pictured as being between the angels and the beasts. To act against human nature by not allowing reason to rule the emotions is to descend to the level of the beasts. In the other direction, an attempt to go above one’s proper place is to court disaster because one would be asserting oneself as equal to or higher than the Gods.


Remember, this Chain is thought to have been ordained by the Gods, each link in it representing a species of being, creature, or object. The links higher on the chain possess greater intellect, mobility, and capability than those lower on the Chain. Accordingly, the higher links have more authority over the lower. For instance, plants only have authority and ability to rule


over minerals. Being superior in nature to inert rock and soil, the plants have divine sanction to draw sustenance from them, and grow upon them, while the minerals and soil support them.


Animals, higher on the Chain, are thought to have natural authority over both inanimate plants and minerals. For instance, horses can trample the rocks and earth, and can also eat plants. Humans, in turn, are thought to possess greater attributes than other animals, and can rule over the rest of the natural world, uprooting weeds and planting gardens, digging up metals and shaping them into tools, and so on. Likewise, spiritual beings such as angels have greater ability than man, and can rule over and control humanity and the rest of the animal world.


The unifying principle holding the Chain together is “divine love and rational order” (Lovejoy 7). Every being in creation is thought to have its place within this Chain, which entails a certain degree of authority and a certain degree of responsibility to the rest of the Chain. As long as each being knows its place and does its destined duty for the rest of the Chain, all is well.


This Chain’s effect and influence are clearly visible in several arenas, one of those being literary. If Shakespeare compares a woman to a vine and her husband to an oak, he doesn’t do so merely to talk about her beauty or his strength. Instead, he is emphasizing her subordination to him in the Chain of Being. Likewise, if two characters fight for the throne, one compared to a lion, the other compared to a boar, the comparison implies something about which one has a legitimate claim (Elton 7). Additionally, imagery from the sun, the moon, or other parts of nature often involve an implied set of connotations concerning that object or animals place in nature.


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The Chain has moral implications as well. It becomes a moral imperative for each creature to know its place in the Chain of Being and fulfill its own function without striving to rise above its station or debasing itself by behavior proper to the lower links in the chain. A human who is as gluttonous as a pig, or as lecherous as goat, has allowed the lower, bestial instincts in his nature to supercede his divine capability of reason. He is guilty of fleshly or carnal sin, and denies the rational, spiritual aspect of his nature. Likewise, a human who attempts to rise above his social rank does so through arrogance, pride, or envy of those better than he. Here, the error is an intellectual or spiritual sin.


Politically, and more in relation to the play on which I will be focusing, the belief in the Chain of Being means that monarchy is ordained by God and inherent in the very structure of the universe. Rebellion is a sin not only against the state, but also against heaven itself, for the king is Gods appointed deputy on earth, with semi-divine powers. Conversely, the king has a moral responsibility to God and his people. In return for his absolute power, he is expected to rule his subjects with love, wisdom, and justice. To do otherwise is to abandon those natural qualities that make a noble fit to rule in the first place. Misusing regal authority is a perversion of divine order.


So, this fear of disorder is not merely philosophical, as it has significant political ramifications as well. The proscription against trying to rise beyond one’s place is, of course, useful to political rulers, for it helps to reinforce their authority. The implication is that civil rebellion causes the Chain to be broken, and according to the doctrine, this has dire consequences in other realms. It is a sin against God, at least wherever rulers claimed to rule by


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“Divine Right,” and is suggested that if the sin is of cosmic proportions then civil disorders are often accompanied by meteoric disturbances in the heavens.


How, then, does this Chain apply to the tragedy of revenge in King Lear? On a most basic level, when Lear divides his kingdom, he goes against the natural order, causing chaos. The chaos presents itself in the form of the hateful children Regan, Goneril, and Edmund. Each child acts with unmitigated cruelty toward their parents, becoming more and more like beasts. The deaths of Lear, Goneril, and Edmund are prime examples of justice prevailing for evil, and in Lear’s case, unnatural acts.


When reading King Lear and attempting to fully understand nature’s role of revenger in it, it is essential to understand this Elizabethan Chain of Being. Lovejoy, in The Great Chain of Being A Study of the History of an Idea, discusses the belief in an established hierarchy within the universe. He writes that everything has its own relative position, even within each individual link, beginning with Heaven, the Divine Being, and the stars and planets above. On earth, the King is next, then the nobles, on down to the peasantry. Men are held to be above women, fathers above children, and the elderly above the young. Holding the lowest position are the beggars and lunatics and, finally, the animals. Interrupting this order is unnatural. We will see how the disruption of this Chain results in punishment after a brief summary of Shakespeare’s work.


Lear, King of Britain, divides his land between his two elder daughters, Regan and Goneril, but disinherits his youngest daughter, Cordelia, who refuses to flatter him. Cordelia leaves with her new husband, the King of France. Kent, one of Lear’s counselors, is also


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banished from Britain for trying to convince Lear to act with reason toward Cordelia. Simultaneously, Gloucester, Lear’s trusted friend, has been deceived by his own bastard son, Edmund. Edmund has plotted to turn Gloucester against his legitimate son, Edgar. Edgar flees for his life, disguising himself as “Old Tom.”


Once in power, Regan and Goneril work to strip Lear of control. They treat their father with such coldhearted hatred that Lear cannot remain with them. Having nowhere to go, Lear and his Fool are caught outdoors in a tumultuous storm where they meet the disguised Edgar and Kent, who is disguised as a peasant servant. Spurred on by Edmund’s plot to banish Gloucester, Regan and her husband, Cornwall, blind Gloucester and send him out to find his own way. In his wanderings, Gloucester meets Lear, recognizes his voice, and tells him of the wrongdoing at the hands of Regan and Goneril. Lear and Cordelia reunite and, together with Kent’s forces, battle the combined armies of Edmund, Regan and Goneril.


Many themes are evident in King Lear, but certainly the most prevalent relates to this theme of justice and revenge due to challenging or disregarding the Chain. Shakespeare has developed a tragedy that allows us to see man’s descent into chaos. Although Lear is perceived as a “man more sinned against than sinning” (4..8), the treatment of the main characters encourages the reader to reflect on the presence or lack of justice in this world. The characters also vary in their inclination to view the world from either a fatalistic or moralistic point of view, depending on their beliefs about the presence or absence of a higher power. The theme of justice in relation to higher powers can be illustrated from the perspectives of King Lear, Goneril, Edmund, Gloucester, and Edgar.





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Lear’s ultimate fate is death, and his early demise is a direct result of breaching the Great Chain of Being which states that no mortal will abandon his position in the hierarchy of ranking by God; this same hierarchy that has made Lear the King. He sees disorder, a challenge to Nature, in Cordelia and Kent’s responses to him, but is wrong about the source he himself has caused the disruption by dividing a peaceful kingdom and forsaking his duties as ruler. Lear’s intention of abdicating the throne is apparent from the outset and is seen in the following speech spoken during the opening scene of the play “Know that we have divided / in three our kingdom [. . .]” (1.1.8). The splitting of Lear’s kingdom and the abdication of his throne are not acts of necessity, but acts toward easing the remainder of his life. Thus, Lear is abandoning the position given to him by God.


King Lear’s sin is that he disrupted this Chain of Being by relinquishing his throne. By allowing his daughters and their husbands to rule the kingdom, the natural order of things is disturbed. His notion that he can still be in control after dividing the kingdom is a delusion. According to Elizabethan philosophy, it would seem that this is the beginning of his mistakes and is also the cause of the misfortune that occurs later on in the play (Lovejoy 78).


Lear’s disruption of the Great Chain of Being is in an unnatural fashion because the abdication of his kingship is without dire or mortal cause. The method of passing down his land to his heirs is also unnatural. Lear informs his daughters that he has divided his kingdom into three parcels, one for each of his daughter’s dowries, the largest parcel of kingdom to be awarded to the daughter who proclaims to love him most. This is a violation of the natural order of


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commonly accepted hierarchy that states a father’s estate be endowed upon his eldest son. For this, Lear is punished.


An error in judgement and an untempered release of anger are also factors contributing to Lear’s downfall. Lear listens to flattery from Goneril when she says, “I love you more / than word can wield the / matter” (1.1.55-61). Regan compares her own love with Goneril’s by saying, “I find she names my very deed of love, / Only she comes too short [. . .]” (1.1.70-1). Cordelia, however, does not compete with their flattery and praise, merely telling her father that she loves him as a daughter should love a father, with respect and obedience. Lear is so heartbroken by his youngest and, until then, most beloved daughters refusal to praise him that a rage ensues. His judgement is clouded by anger at Cordelia’s refusal to praise him with flattery, and he swears by the gods that Cordelia is no longer his daughter, choosing to give her no portion of the land.


Chaos rules the unnatural, according to the Chain as described by Lovejoy (14). Lear makes a devastating mistake that affects his relationship with his daughters by asking them to tell him how much they love him in order that he may divide his kingdom accordingly. Cordelia, the youngest daughter, states that she loves her father the way she is supposed to, as much as any child could love a father but not as much as she will love a husband. On the other hand, Goneril and Regan easily speak the words that their father wants to hear, rather than the truth. Because Lear is not satisfied with Cordelia’s response, he turns his back on her and her love. By doing this, he is destroying the natural family unit and lacks the insight to know this. He unjustly


punishes Cordelia by banishing her from the kingdom. He casts out his daughter in an unfatherly fashion, yet is gravely upset by the ingratitude of his other two daughters, Goneril and Regan.


Once again, due to Lear’s lack of wisdom, he fails to recognize the sincerity of Cordelia’s words. Thus, he puts his relationship with his daughters in jeopardy resulting in a constant source of grief for Lear. Lear holds firm to this belief that the world is governed by the Gods, and believes strongly in justice and revenge. Therefore, he does not question the will of the Gods in letting him suffer from his daughter’s unkindness, but instead prays.


Elton reminds us that Shakespeare uses the word “nature” often, but rarely with the same meaning (144). For instance, Lear personifies nature when he calls Cordelia “a wretch whom nature is ashamed / Almost to acknowledge hers” (1.1.11-1). Here, it seems as though Lear thinks himself to be particularly special and close to nature because he is presumptuous in believing that he can read Nature’s mind. On the same note, he seems to order his goddess, Nature, as though he is in control, commanding Nature to follow his orders. Lear, again, is disturbing the Great Chain of Being by putting himself above the Gods. He disrupts this Chain by unjustly punishing Cordelia and misinterpreting his role in life by assuming to be the lord of creation. For these sins, he is punished when Goneril and Regan turn on him and Cordelia dies. Losing the love of his daughters is the revenge that he is faced with. Thus, it would seem that justice is served. However, Muir suggests that Lear suffers more for his sins than seems reasonable, summing up this concept as follows “The world can be to mankind, and has been to Lear, a rack a scene of suffering reiterated past all probability or reason” (56).





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Revenge and justice, the kind that is meted out by nature and not man-made, are met when Lear dies at the end of the play. This is a direct result of the actions that he has committed that, while not necessarily evil-hearted, are in direct violation of the Great Chain of Being. Additionally, he is being punished for his cruel and irrational disowning and banishment of Cordelia. Lear’s punishment is a result of irrational judgements and unnatural actions.


Goneril suffers the same fate as Lear, but her death is a direct result of a series of vile, ruthless, and despicable actions. The first instance that hints at Goneril’s evil nature appears in a conversation between her and Regan after Lear hands down his power of state to them. Goneril proposes to Regan that they join forces in stripping Lear of his authority because she views it as a threat. This would be considered an evil act if Goneril was just a peasant or vassal, to plot treason against the King, but it is worse since Goneril is plotting against her own father. Clearly, she has no respect for Lear as King, superior, or father.


The extent of Goneril’s disrespect for hierarchical bonds and her evil nature are further revealed in a letter from her to Edmund. It details Goneril’s wish for Edmund to kill her husband, Cornwall. Now, not only has Goneril disregarded her filial bond with Lear by disrespecting him and going against his wishes, she does even worse by disregarding her marital bond with Cornwall and plotting his murder. Finally, passing the point of simply plotting murder, Goneril commits the act herself when she kills her own sister. After poisoning Regan and discovering that Cornwall has proof that she was plotting against him, Goneril feels there is no alternative but to take her own life, which is, ultimately, a fitting vengeance doled out by the Gods for violating the Chain.





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Edmund is another character whose death is a perfect punishment for his acts of betrayal throughout the play. The illegitimate son of Gloucester, Edmund seeks his father’s land through scheming and deception. He proclaims that as Gloucester’s son, he is entitled to the land, believing that customs of the realm should not be able to keep him from it. Although Gloucester is far from retiring and passing the land on to his legitimate heir, Edgar, Edmund feels that he must already begin plotting against Edgar in order to ensure that it is he who receives the land and not Edgar. Edmund, thus, conceives a letter to Gloucester, signing it in Edgar’s name, implying that Edgar would rather kill Gloucester in order to enjoy his estate. Then, in a hurried and hectic conversation, Edmund confuses Edgar and convinces him to flee from Gloucester, giving him the appearance of guilt.


Gloucester, arriving on the scene, is convinced of Edgar’s treason. Edmund has removed Edgar from his father’s favor, but does not yet possess Gloucester’s land or wealth. An opportunity presents itself, however, when Gloucester reveals to Edmund the contents of a letter he has received. Gloucester informs Edmund that a secret power, France, has landed in the realm to revenge disrespect toward Lear. Edmund plans to tell the Duke of Albany of the letter, hoping that this information will make Gloucester look like a traitor in the Duke’s eyes. Edmund’s plan is to be rewarded with his father’s land since it will be stripped away from him for treason. Edmund has challenged the pre-ordained view of nature, and worships the view that upholds survival of the fittest, with no respect for tradition or custom. He laughs at the idea that the heavens determine a person’s fate or place in society, and intends to scratch and claw his way to the top, crawling over the bodies of his father and elder brother to do so.





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Edmund’s first mistake is in disregarding the “given” order of royalty that has been dictated by nature. Rightly, he does not stand first in line to inherit from his father. As dictated by the Chain, Edmund’s brother is one link higher than he is. So, regardless of the blood bonds between he and his brother, he is violating the Chain by disregarding the preordained hierarchy of royalty. His second mistake, evil and willingness to sacrifice his own family for status and wealth, clearly demands some sort of revenge. It is only fitting that the betrayal of his own blood, both his father and his brother, is answered by death at the hands of Edgar.


Lear, Goneril, and Edmund have each been motivated in different ways. Lear’s motivation was an unnatural and irrational motivation. Goneril’s heart was of the basest evil and jealousy. Greed and selfishness drove Edmund to the decision that he made. Although the methods and paths of their downfall are different, each person suffers the identical fate as decided by vengeance. What the Chain tells us, then, is that the motivation behind breaking the links is not the most import factor to remember. Whether it is intentional or not, each link that is broken has the same dire consequences. The broken Chain, however, does not stop with these three.


Gloucester plays a parallel role to Lear in the play. He is elderly, gullible, and taken in by his children. Again, the natural unit of the family is disturbed, for Gloucester has a bastard son who is his downfall. However, unlike Lear, he is not weak and infirm but is more good-natured and brave. Like Lear, Gloucester makes reference to Nature. However, Elton feels that Gloucester views Nature as neutral and sees it existing only for man’s benefit (114), as evidenced when he says, “These late eclipses in the sun and moon portend no good to us /


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though the wisdom of nature can reason it thus and thus, yet nature finds itself scourged by the sequent effects” (1..5).


Rather than blame Nature, Gloucester is aware that his problems are a result of his own foolishness. He does not feel that the Gods are necessary to explain Edmund’s treason or Cornwall’s brutality. However, he does make clear his belief that the Gods are not interested in the affairs of men. Although it may seem as though Gloucester is an atheist, Tillyard believes otherwise “Gloucester is not an atheist; he postulates Gods, divine personalities, and if he replaces them with a mechanism of fate or destiny he couldn’t ascribe malice to it. What he feels is that there is some mystery in the horror of what’s happened to him that goes beyond the tangible human causes” (111).


It is true that Gloucester has been lustful and has fathered an illegitimate son as the consequences of his lust. Since this, too, is an unnatural act, it seems justice must be served to restore order. However, to what degree is Gloucester responsible for Edmund’s evil behavior? And, is it “just revenge” that Gloucester’s eyes were poked out by Goneril and Regan? This leaves one wondering whether or not justice is served as Gloucester dies at the end of the play, as the punishment seems to exceed the crime.


Edgar is Gloucester’s legitimate son who is in danger of losing his right to his inheritance. At first he is the good and dutiful one. At times he is gullible and na├»ve when responding to his illegitimate brother, Edmund, who tries to take his birth right. Edgar is the moralist in this play. When he reflects on his own undeserved troubles and the suffering of others, there is a religious tone. He has faith in the gods and their vengeance, and is quick to


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give the “higher powers” the credit for what happens to man. Thus, he says to Gloucester, who believes he has fallen from the edge of a cliff “Think that the clearest gods, who make them honors / Of mens impossibilities, have preserved thee” (4.5.7-4). He points out the justice of the gods in punishing Gloucester by the hand of Edmund “The Gods are just, and of our pleasant vices / Make instruments to plague us” (5..48). Edgar believes that there is order in nature. He thinks that there is a natural ebb and flow in human fortunes, meaning that even the worst situation can become better (Elton).


However, he comes to realize that this belief is sometimes challenged. When he finds his father blinded, it becomes obvious that this suffering is renewed. Elton comments that it may seem that nature is indifferent to the fate of any individual (4). Edgar differs from Gloucester in that he takes a moralistic point of view. Muir suggests that while Gloucester “feels that there is some mystery in the horror of what’s happened to him that goes beyond the tangible human causes [. . .] Edgar [. . .] looks for human causes and assumes that there are powers above who are reacting to events as they should” (111).


Why, then, if breaking the Chain results in chaos and punishment to all, is Edgar essentially “rewarded” in the end. As mentioned earlier, after a disruption in the Chain, life’s events return to normal only when order has been restored. Edgar represents this order, and is viewed by the Gods as the only hope of returning normalcy to the land. No justice would be served in punishing Edgar, as he believes in the natural order of things as dictated by Nature. In Edgar’s case it seems that he has received his just reward. He does not have an easy time when


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dealing with his brother, Edmund, but perseveres. It would seem that justice is served as Edgar regains his proper position in the natural order of things.


Additionally, we must ask ourselves the following if Edgar is essentially rewarded for his “goodness,” no revenge being meted out to him as a result of the actions of others, why does Cordelia not have the same privilege? Why must she die? My argument would be that, since it is Lear who makes the most significant break in the Chain, essentially causing the domino effect that is witnessed throughout the play, it is he who must suffer the most. What greater revenge could there be on Lear than the death of his most beloved daughter? Is it fair? No. But, revenge often is not.


Today’s Great Chain of Being could more aptly be referred to as “karma;” reaping what one sews; just desserts; or lying in one’s bed after having made it. In this regard, Revenge (the person) can still be seen as some cosmic force that is introduced into our lives as a direct result of some road we have chosen to take, or some decision we have chosen to make.


As a lesson to us today, it is debatable whether each decision we make is weighted on a cosmic scale with justice waiting to punish the evil or reward the good, but what is certain is that each decision we make plays a direct role in our future. In King Lear, each of the characters discussed have varying interpretations of the importance of the higher powers affecting their fortunes, and the natural revenge that occurs when they go against the Great Chain of Being. As well, justice is handed out in different degrees. In the eyes of the characters, Shakespeare succeeds in illustrating the universal conflict that members of society have always had in understanding their fate in this world.


Bloom, Harold, Ed. King Lear. New York Chelsea House, 187.


Elton, William R. King Lear and the Gods. San Marino The Huntington Library, 168.


Lovejoy, Arthur Oncken. The Great Chain of Being A Studyof the History of an Idea. Cambridge Harvard UP, 164.


Muir, Kenneth, and Stanley Wells, Eds. Aspects of King Lear. London Cambridge UP, 18.


Tillyard, Eustace M. The Elizabethan World Picture. New York Random House, 15.


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Saturday, June 25, 2011

"If a society is to thrive, it must put its own overall success before the well-being of its individual citizens."

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Because a strong and prosperous society is often a round-developed one, it always pays more attention for the well-being o its individual citizens. But whether a developing society als


o should concert it? Somebody argues that if a society is to thrive, it must put its own overall success before the well-being of its individual citizens. On the surface, it may seem an reasonable argument that we should work hard for a thrived society firstly and then enjoy the fruits we have planted. But on a closer examination, we find several problems the argument has. Although sometimes we may sacrifice some peoples¡¯ well-being at the moment in order to protect the long-term benefits of the major people, it is not necessary for a society to give up the well-being of its individual citizens when it just begins to thrive.


In contrast, it is more possible for a society advance more rapid and healthy because in a society with appropriate well-being of individual citizens, people can put their all energy into work for the progress of society and need not worry about heir payment ability for child education, illness and tiny but bothered other family problems. Thus, because people with well-being assurance need not distract their attention and save time for engaging their special fields, scientist can specialize in their research realm and get more scientific fruits than ever; Teacher can do their best to instruct and more conscientiously and responsibly mold student-- the potential leasers tomorrow. Doctor can more carefully and skillfully remedy their patients¡­ Therefore, a society with good being-well system may more stably and more coherently develop and not jolt because the unbalanced development.


Moreover, it also impulse the development of these academic fields --such as mathematics, physical --which may not put out the economy benefits immediately but, in long-term, which is much usefully for society advance. A recent report, conducted by Shanghai Dairy shows that with the increasing investment in well-being of individual in Shanghai more and more students begin to choose the major specialty they are really interested in comparing with the hot specialty blindly chose by students and their parents in order to get an opportunity for well-paid career in future. More and more students begin to apply the graduate degree for some research fields which once were regarded as dead specialty such as society science and other basic theory science by undergraduates. The reason is very simple that it is much difficult to earn money after graduation. Now, because the policy of well-being in shanghai is adopted, people gradually begin to pay more attention their interest. The result, I believe, is much significant for our progress. After all, we need not only the engineers, doctors, economists but also theorists, philosophers and social scientists


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Admittedly, we can not overemphasize the well-being in individual citizen, especially in developing country. Too good well-being can impede the society to thrive because it can make people become lazy and low their enthusiasm for work. If a man without job has the same good living condition as these who work hard, who will go out far away home for a job? Where will the source power come from to accelerate society advance in a society whose people have no ambition and don¡¯t care about their job. For a society to thrive, it is necessary to educate their people to struggle for their future and let them understand tomorrow happiness comes from today¡¯s perspiring.


In conclusion, if a society is to thrive, it is equally important to assure well-being of individual citizens and other developments although overemphasis on well-being of its individual citizen in a developing country has some disadvantages for its development. What we need do is how to have a balanced development between the well-being and other development after we carefully analyze the disadvantages and advantages of well-being at the different phase of a society development.





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alexander the great or Julius caesar, which army was the better fighting machine

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Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar were both military geniuses, but by Alexander’s teaching, ambition and friendly conquering, it made him and his army a more effective and efficient fighting machine. From the time Alexander was born, he was destined for greatness. On the day he was born, things such as building caught fire. This was taken for depicting his destiny, showing that he would be strong and conquering. From the first time that Alexander set out for battle with Persia to his last fight, he was idolized. His was considered to be a god, but he still associated with his troops, when they had no water, he through his away. Julius on the other hand never physically entered battle with his troops, Alexander always led his troops at the front line. Even though these two men lived during different times, they each had some of the same characteristics. Both men were very ambitious, and well educated, each having been taught by some of the best teachers of the time. However each man had there own ideas for the new territory that they conquered. While one man tried to promote unity the other wanted to sole power.


Alexander and Julius had in common the same type of goals, however, they each had many differences. Even though some of their outcomes were similar, their methods of achieving them were very different. For example, each man wanted to be king. Julius wanted to be king so that he could be the only ruler and a tyrant. Alexander wanted to be ruler so that he could promote peace, live in unity with everybody and spread the culture of Greece around. Both of the two used their armies to achieve these goals, Alexander conquered most of the Middle East, while Julius controlled western and central Europe. It seemed harsh that Alexander would use a military force to unify Europe, however he would offer a sign of peace to any opposing forces before attacking. More often the not, captured slaves would want to stay under Alexander’s rule rather then go back to there home land. When Alexander defeated Darius, he had captured Darius’s wife and daughter. Alexander was known for his anger, but he could also be merciful. When a settlement would not willingly yield to his authority, he would take it by force. Yet when he captured Darius’s wife and daughter he showed them kindness and not cruelty. In fact when they were given the chance to return to Persia, they had wanted to stay in Greece with Alexander. Julius, was ruthless, and if faced with the same situation as Alexander, he most definitely would not be as compassionate. An important factor as to why these men were both successful was also because of the ability to speak in large groups and win the respect of others.


Before entering battle, each gave a motivational speech. Alexander used his popularity and public speaking skills to motivate his army. He would lead by example, and taught his men bravery and courage. Julius was also an excellent public speaker, and used his skills to manipulate his army into fighting. He did this to motivate his army when they wee depressed or heading into battle. This was not common by a general, because of their speaking skills, however because Julius did not enter battle with his army it should his philosophy of how he thought he was better. Alexander would lead his men, this should that he had confidence in them to defeat opposing forces. This allowed for his men want to willingly fight for him and be motivated enough to conquer opposing forces.


Most of the time Alexander was largely out numbered, yet he was still able to defeat his enemies. His success lay in his tactics, particularly the phalanx. The phalanx allowed very little openings for his enemies to attack. Not only did Alexander have a strong infantry, but because he was well educated and knowledgeable, he understood how much a cavalry was important as an offensive weapon. Cavalry could also compensate for smaller armies such as Alexander’s. Because Alex was so smart he could also adapt quickly to changing his strategies in the middle of battle. If he was not in front, charging towards his enemies, he would be over looking the fight, trying to make it in his favor. The phalanx was so effective because it allowed for maximum protection of the soldiers, while being able to win battles with ease. The soldiers were so close that each of their shields would protect them and the man beside them. They also carried large spears which would not allow for enemies to come close to them. Alexander was smart in choosing were to fight battles as well. If he was largely out numbered, he would force the fight in a small area so as not to be surrounded but to have one on one battle in which he would win.


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An aspect of strength that was also important to an army was who it was allied with. Alexander had no allies when he was conquering other cities, and when in battle, “Alexander had no friends or allies”. Julius on the other hand had allies such as Pompey and Crassus who also had strong armies. This shows that Alexander could accomplish more on his own with fewer men. He was more efficient and had the ambition to conquer all of Europe, except his men did not want to continue forward. This showed that Alexander’s ambition was very strong. Julius went to battle to defeat any threats to his power or that could over throw him. This shows that his ambition was different from Alexander’s because he was ruthless, and was a dictator. This showed in their armies because they responded in the way that there leader treated them. Julius conscripted people to join, and they were often not happy about having to leave their homes for periods of up to a year. Alexander reformed the army, making it a job with benefits. This allowed people to be happy, which meant that they would fight willingly for Alexander. Because they were more willing to fight, they would be able to travel further without more nagging, this meant that they would be able to conquer more cities.


Alexander and Julius were both very smart, and were brought up in a similar lifestyle. It was there ambitions and destiny for them to both become leaders of there time. However, as leaders they both had different interests. It was because of their interest that made one army greater the other. Alexander’s army was a better fighting machine because they were well taken care of, and led by a worthy man, who was a powerful leader. Their tactics were revolutionary, not allowing their enemies to even come close to them. Alexander never lost a battle in his time, proving that his army was superior to any other. Julius was a tyrant while Alexander promoted peace and unity. It was his ability to think quickly in battle, and his tactics such as the phalanx that made his army the best fighting machine.





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