Sunday, August 26, 2012

drama absurd

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One of the objective of my drama performance was to a have a variety of different absurdist conventions such as circularity, menace, black humour, symbolism and pauses. Furthermore I tried to link it with the existential philosophy behind the absurdist play.



I portrayed circularity through the way I entered and exited the stage using Lucky’s walk from waiting for Godot. Lucky is a character who has made the choice to be told what to do as live a life as a servant. This links with the existential philosophy that humans find it easier to be told what to do then to make their own choices in life.

In addition I used circularity in my dialogue with quoted from Estragon. Circularity portrays that nothing worthwhile happens in life and that our lives are superficial and nothing original can happened because it all happens before. This is crucial to absurdist plays and the existential philosophy.

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Menace was shown through the character of Peter from zoo Story and Professor Tarrane from Professor Tarrane in my performance . Peter stresses over Jerry taking away his bench and Tarrane stresses about his fakeness and his validity as Professor and copying Professor Menard. They both represent that humans are controlled by superficial objects and also try to live up to other people’s expectations instead of being who they really are and making choices which suit their needs. They are menaced by someone taking away their fake cover and exposing the real them.



Black humour was presented by Lucky in my performance when he tripped over the chair. Although it was hurtful for the character, it is also quite funny. It’s another part of the absurdist theatre. Humans laugh at other people’s pain although it’s really a laughing situation. Another convention I used was pauses. My main use for pauses was ambiguous I wanted to have pauses as a character change, so every time I changed characters I paused, also to have the absurdist meaning of making it seem like something important is happening and to heighten the tension although it really represents that nothing is happening. This also comes from the existential philosophy that human talk is useless and nothing meaningful and important is ever really said in a conversation between humans.

All these conventions and characters are symbolic because they represent something from the existential philosophy although I used physical objects like the chair, my jacket and shoes for symbolism as well. The chair which was symbolising the bench from Zoo Story was suppose to show how objects control us and we don’t want to have the choice to make our own decisions this is why I climbed under the chair. To show the chair has power over the character of Peter. My jacket represents the exterior we put forth for others to hide ourselves and try meet their expectations. The jacket symbolises Professor Tarrane. He was trying to be like Professor Menard and didn’t want to accept that he wasn’t as good as he made himself out to be. The shoes symbolise the pain and suffering humanity went through after world war two. This time was a crucial period because it’s when the theatre of the absurd came about. The aftermath of world war two led to poverty and displacement and the death of God. Estragon in waiting For Godot was always taking off his shoes and caressing his feet because his shoes were too small for him. it symbolises the poverty of the context which Waiting For Godot and many other absurd plays were written.

I developed my performance by choosing which conventions I wanted to portray to the audience and tried to mould the characters with certain scenes and quotes with the conventions. I chose four characters Lucky, Estragon, Tarrane and Peter. The first two characters from Waiting For Godot have the self awareness which the other two don’t. Lucky and Estragon know they are worthless and their lives have no meaning and they have accepted this. Professor Tarrane and Peter aren’t aware of the superficiality of their lives and it is only at the end of Zoo Story and Professor Tarrane they realise they are fake.

I had a few problems while putting together my performance. The first was the amount of pain I endured while trying to practise the first part where Lucky falls over the chair. Falling on the ground while practising led to so many bruises on the side of my body that at one stage I was discouraged and thought maybe to not put that part in. Secondly another problem I faced was how to present the characters. I have only seen Waiting for Godot in a live production and therefore I wasn’t quite sure how the other characters (Peter and Tarrane) were suppose to be presented. I took my interpretation and tried to follow the stage directions from the plays. I imagined them both to be upper class type men. Although I imagined Tarrane have a English accent and Peter an American one. Peter I saw more of a childish selfish character because of his resistance to give up the bench in Zoo Story and Tarrane to be a scatter brain type Professor in his own little world. Thirdly I had difficulty overcoming my instincts to make a well made monologue. It was hard trying to put something which didn’t have a the conventions of a realist play because that’s what I have been used to all this time. Making my performance absurd was hard because subconsciously I felt like I was doing something wrong. Finally the last problem I had was time. Everytime I timed my performance I got different times. It took me a while to do the same thing over and over to get the same time again and again.

Essentially I didn’t want to try copy quotes word for word in my monologue. I tried to add what I understood of the conventions but use the characteristics of the characters so I could present both. Just copying whole quotes from the books made me feel like it wasn’t really my own work. I wanted to make my performance fit the absurdist and existential philosophy through the characters without just repeating the whole play. I wanted my performance to show that we as a humans led meaningless lives and humans hide behind a fake exterior just to please social



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Thursday, August 23, 2012

i'm bored

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Hi,

Im an Irish student in collage at the moment and im bored!!! Im bored because i have to study for stupid tests which are happening in a few weeks time, economics, stats, government and a marketing project that has to be handed in.

Last thursday night was the Comm ball. At the comm ball i was not bored because before I went out I had a nangen of vodka and while out I was drinking vodka with a dash of white.

As you can well imagine I was fairly polluted by the end of the night!!

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After the ball there was of course a fight. This occured between the pres and christian lads who were also attending the ball. My friend who was there ended up getting a bloody lip-the drama of it all!!!!!

After the fight, me and a few of the lads got a taxi back to where I live. I invited the lads in for a while but soon had to kick them out again as they started to eat all my food!!!!(they were a small bit drunk as well!!)174

We then decided to go to another party which was happening in the house next to me. The party was great, lots of drink and a few smokes-could life get any better!!!

The next day i went to lunch with my friend in town and I saw the guy who Id been meeting for 8 months. Can u imagine it? Meeting a guy for 8 months and never actually going with him. Anyway thank god he didnt see me, I wasnt looking my best!

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Sunday, August 19, 2012

Cal

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CAL By Bernard Mac Laverty Characters Cal He is a typical 1-year-old Irish boy. He has had a hard life because his mother died when he was 8. Now he is living together with his father Shamie. But the relation between them is not like a father and son relation, they are more like friends. I had also previously believed that extreme religious groups were contradictory in their very nature - their extreme violence is forbidden by the religion they are fighting for. Yet, as I witnessed Cals religious turmoil over Roberts murder, this perspective changed also.

Even as a lapsed Catholic Cal applies the Catholic belief that penance achieves absolution to himself with particular zeal. His attitude can be summed up by his reaction to Roberts murder leaving him, like the biblical Caine, with

A brand stamped in the middle of his forehead which would take him the rest of his life to purge.[1]

His relationship with Marcella Morton is the area of his life where he applies this belief with singular determination. As an accessory to her husbands murder,Cal should regard a relationship with Marcella as unattainable. At first I agreed with Cal that

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.... by his action he had outlawed himself from her. As Cal begins to fall in love with Marcella, however, I began to sympathise more with Cal, for he is caught between two opposing forces - love and guilt. His guilt and religious belief become part of his relationship with Marcella with his constant reminders to himself that he should behave as a proper&q ...

Please note that this sample paper on Cal is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Cal, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Cal will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Tuesday, August 14, 2012

Operation Management

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I had little knowledge of operations management prior to this course, I think I had perceived it as something exclusive to manufacturing and industry. I linked it purely to oily machine shops and large, noisy machines producing goods. I discover that the principles and techniques of operations management apply equally to the effective running of services and although not there yet it is my intention to use this assignment to help me to develop a well managed, organised and planned work environment. The team I manage is the Family Support Team, which is part of Newcastle Social Services Directorate.

Family Support Team.

The Family Support Team was established in April 001. It superseded the Community Support Team, which had the remit to prevent accommodation of young people over the age of ten into local authority care and the Family Resource Team, who provided assessment for children under the age of ten within the child protection guidelines. The Family Support Team was an expansion of the existing services, as the City of Newcastle wanted to increase the resources to prevent reception into public care/accommodation and have a positive impact on the Child Protection Registration. The Family Support Team became part of the Children and Families structure instead of the Accommodation Services in which the teams had previously belonged.

The Family Support Team currently consists of 14 Family Support Workers,

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1 Senior Family Support Worker, Social Workers, 1 Family Support Co-ordinator, 1 Social Work Assistant, Black and Ethnic Minority development workers, 4 full time Admin posts, and a partnership with Newcastle, North Tyneside and Northumberland Mental Health Trust who provide Paediatric Nurse posts.

The team also has workers based with a Sure Start project and a worker based with a community family health centre.

The Newcastle Drugs Action Plan includes a Drug and Alcohol specialist midwife post based with the based with the team.

A Social Work Team Manager (Dave Lally) manages the Team.



Key Objectives Family Support Team

ɨ To prevent family break down and the placement of children in crisis

ɨ To support the rehabilitation back home of children and young people

ɨ To impact positively on Child Protection and Re registration rates, and reduce the time children spend on the register

ɨ To offer a range of Family Support Services to vulnerable families and children in need

ɨ To provide focused intervention with individual young people that will enable them to remain living with their family

ɨ To provide Family Support to Asylum Seekers and Refugees

ɨ To Network and build Partnerships to counteract the problems faced by families in Newcastle.

For the purpose of this assignment the Family Support Team (FST) is the organisation, within which there are several operating systems and subsystems.

The operational function of the FST as an organisation can be broken down into several activities

MARKETING

Promotional leaflet, road shows and Web site.

ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

Management of charities grants, monitoring of expenditure, pay staff, prepare and manage budgets.

SERVICE DEVELOPMENT

Design new methods of working with families, focus groups, research and evidence based practice.

OPERATIONS

Referral process, case transfer, and reviewing, emergency response and duty system.

PERSONNEL

Recruitment and selection of staff. Training staff and scheduling staff.

PURCHASING

Support from external agencies, equipment and consumables.

TECHNICAL Virtual Electronic Social Care Records.

There are many definitions of operating systems all very similar

Organisations use their resources to change the state or condition of something to produce outputs. This process is known as transformation. I will use the transformation model to describe the operating system of FST.

See Fig.1.

In the FST model there are two types of input

1. Transformed resources made up of Information and Customers; in this case the customer (family) is the dominant resource.

. Transforming resources, including social work staff, admin support, the building Cragside House and its facilities.

The FST transformation process involves customer processing where the parent, child or family undergoes a significant change, in this case in their emotional state, behaviour and physical wellbeing.

The output of the FST transformation process is services to families and are best described as intangible as they can not be physically touched but the results of offering the service can certainly be felt and seen, e.g. changes in someone’s psychological state. As a service FST is neither storable nor transportable.

The outputs of the FST can be described using a Service Delivery Model, (see appendix 1). I am using this model as an example because I used it as part of a Team Development Workshop in February 00 with no knowledge of operations management but have found it helpful to identify the operation for this assignment.

The model uses an axis. The operating system I am concerned with is associated with the direct work to the left of the vertical axis and is made up of two sub systems, above and below the horizontal axis.

Like all organisations FST has a number of parts that can be considered to reflect the whole operation they are part of. The FST is itself only part of a the larger social services directorate and so on… This Slack refers to as an ‘ operations system hierarchy’.

The sub system or operation known as ‘Duty’ in Fig 1, produces outputs that are the input for the operation referred to as ‘Family Support’. This arrangement is described by Slack as the internal customer � internal supplier relationship.

The organisational aims and objectives are the same for both operations and it is essential that the external customer experience little or no difference between the two as they are transformed. I am going to concentrate on the operation ‘Duty’.

When looking at this operation I first need to classify it, there are four generally accepted classifications for an operation

1 Manufacture.

Supply.

Service.

4 Transport.

Quite clearly if we use these classifications as sited by Wild we can see that FST is a service operation as there is a change in the state of the input.

Wild further goes on to classify service operations by how the organisation plans to meet the expectations of the customer.

By using Wilds classification model, we can see that when the FST first started it attempted to have a service that combined two structures into one. It attempted to have a fast immediate response to new customers on demand, whilst at the same time using a social work model of planned intervention based on appointments. This did not work and certain metaphors come to mind like; ‘blue arse fly’ and ‘headless chickens’

It was at this stage that I decided the team needed a specialist group of staff to deal with the demand for rapid crisis response which I hoped would then allow the rest of the staff to get on with their planned case work. The planned work was suffering, leading to families experiencing more crises and there was then a vicious circle. Again I must emphasise that I knew nothing of operations management theory but can now use Wild’s classification to explore the systems.

In the case of FST ‘ Duty’ the following structure applies, see Fig .

Fig .

Using this classification of function we see that Duty is a customer response model, there is no stock of input resource apart from the queuing of customers, in a pure version of this system the customer is the stock and described by Wild as the Stock-Customer-Operation or; S-C-O. In the case of FST we have no control over this aspect of our stock, the queue varies and appears not to be influenced by anything that can be controlled or measured as future demand. Wild describes this classification as

In the case of ‘family support’ the system as represented in Fig is one of efficiency, where customers access the service by appointment. S-Q-O or Stock-Queue-Operation.

Fig .

Having earlier defined the operation as customer processing, I found it interesting to futher classify the type of sevice process the FST used.

Slack surgests there are three process types

1 Proffessional services.

Mass services.

Service shops.

This is based on the service process matrix proposed by Schmenner in 186, which included ‘ Service Factory’ in its classifications. Schmenner also goes on to point out the implications this has for operations managers, I have looked at this in relation to FST.

The service requirements of the larger organisation, (social services) are that the FST is a targeted, high contact service, specialist assessment and planning service for individual customers and front office based with considerable discretion and automony for staff. This high level of customisation coupled with high labour intensitivity leads to a classification that FST is a professional service.

However when I look at how the service is set up I have to challenge this.

FST was formed following a lengthy restructuring (ney rationalisation) process that ensured the most experienced and best trained staff transferred elsewhere. The new team consisted of those least ‘marketable’ and vacances were used to absorb redeployment issues.

There is no dedicated training budget and the highest level of training offered to staff is the minimal standards set by the Department of Health.

I have to conclude therefore that currently the service is not a proffessional service. It would appear from the resources put in to the maintainance of the team that we are resourced as a mass service being asked to do a proffessional task. More likely this places FST in the position of a service shop, somewhere between professioal service operation and mass service. The challenge therfore for me is how to maintain the high level of quality demanded, by developing the skills of the staff at the same time as managing a flat organisation with ever decreasing costs.

As previously mentioned the customer is queing for this service and internally the relationship between the two systems includes a queuing process. This means then that FST operates a Push system as the services are provided to the customers as soon as and only when the team is ready. At times this does not suit the customer as they have to wait for a service. I believe this is inevitable in a service like social services , but we need to ensure that the staff operating the ‘duty’ system and the ‘family support’ operators meet each others internal requirements. It would be pointless to have one system ensuring a fast response if the customer then had to wait in an internal queue. As manager I need to ensure that staff do not take a heads down approach to their work and that workers relate to each others operations, are able to solve problems, communicate effectively and remain customer focussed.

Manageing this complexity is well sumerised by Schonberger and Knod (14)

Design of Family Support ‘Duty’ process

The response of the duty worker is often the first contact a customer has with FST, it is important then that we get this right. By this I mean it needs to be designed to meet their needs and expectations, this includes both internal and external customers. It is necessary therfore to seek feedback from the customer and from other sources that may give you information on the needs of the customer. The non - customer feedback received by FST comes from two main sources

1 Other professionals who know the customer and have identified what they believe to be the customers needs.

Research and evidenced based practice, this is often commissioned by government bodies.

The service design can as Slack points out start with the customer and end with the customer. It is then the task of the service designers to interpret this information and create the specifications for the service. In the case of FST that was my role, which I did with the team members. Unfortunately this role is not exclusive and at times external influences from other managers and departments have affected changes to operations.

Designing FST ‘Duty’

There are two major aspects of designing a service

1 Defining a service that best meets the needs and expectations of the customer, in manufacturing this is known as product design.

Organising and utilising the available resources to best deliver this service. This is known as process design or planning.

The real difference between service design and manufacturing design is the emphasis placed on the process planning. In services the customer is often as much a part of the process as the product they use, whereas in manufacturing the customer may never experience the process at all.

Slack offers a model of design similar to this and describes three aspects to design that I feel fits the FST.

ɨ The ‘concept’ of FST Duty is that families referred from social workers to FST receive a speedy, relaible and customer focused service. The belief about the concept is that families are transferred seamlessly rather than join yet another waiting list.

ɨ The ‘Package’ is that there is an experienced/multi skilled worker avilable at all times to receive information (the referral), input data into Electronic Social Care Record, same day contact with family to arrange appointment or negotiate crisis response.

ɨ The process is mainly a front of house activity, known internally as ‘front-line’ with some back room support, ‘back-up’ . See fig 4.

Fig 4.

There was a need to market the concept of having a duty operation, but not with our external customers. They had driven and pushed the development with their feedback which confirmed the theory that as such the activity of design is itself a transformation process.

The layout had to be considered carefully, the office set up was origioally based upon individual choice, and had staff in groups of four it was my decision that the four duty workers should sit together to give duty a firm base. This involved the movement of about 1 people in all. One of frustrations for the workers is that they have to share computors and it did not go down well that I insisted on the duty workers had there own but it was accepted that this was necessary to enble them to respond quikly. The operation had to be set up using already hard pushed resources, and it was this reassignment of resources that some staff objected to, it was pushed through with the understanding that the remaining staff would not get tied up with unplanned work and therefore will be more efficient. It was important that I built in a reviewing process into the design. This evaluation process links directly to the performance of both operations as they are interlinked.

Quality management

Old school management talks soley of productivity or rather the limits to productivity as the way to judge how well an operation has performed. However it is generally acknowledged that this can only be used in conjunction with other factors and that quality and its control is a priority for any business. As the President of Hewlett-Packard said in 185

The main criteria used for evaluating operations according to T hannagan 18 are

ɨ cost of the transformation process;

ɨ quality of the service;

ɨ delivery. Speed and reliability of the service;

ɨ flexibility of the process.

Slack et al, 18 adapted this to define five major performance objectives

doing things RIGHT the QUALITY advantage.

doing things FAST the SPEED advantage.

doing things ON TIME the DEPENDABILITY advantage.

CHANGING what you do the FLEXIBILITY advantage.

doing things CHEAP the COST advantage.

Quality of FST Duty is imperative as the resources are so tight that we can not afford the time spent correcting mistakes, we need to get it right first time.

Speed; traditionally people have been made to wait for health and social services and common to all the customer feedback we have done indictes that families most appreciate not having to go through this waitng process and that a speedy response makes them feel important and worthwhile.

Dependability; the impact of work done by FST is affected by how trustworthy customers find us, many have had poor experiences of social work it is imperative that we constantly prove we are dependable.

Flexibility; Although we are a standardised process, the actual package for each family is unique. This is only possible if the operation is flexible. The Duty operation itself is designed to operate -5, however the whole service operates out of hours and 7 days per week. The duty staff also work these hours which alows for a great deal of flexible working.

Cost; Financial cost is a major factor for the service as a whole but only in relation to operating within budget. The real cost of the duty operation is in staff time as the staff who operate this had to be taken from the Family Support operation.

The FST Duty priortitises, speed, dependibility and flexibilty, see appendix 1. This is reviewed each week during the Thursday Duty meeting.

Most definitions of quality accept that high quality is a measure of excellence taken from the customer’s point of view, no matter how we feel we are doing, we need to gain the customers perceptions. If we use the customer focused model similar to that used during the design of the operation then we see that the customer requirements are taken into account, research is done to get information on what others believe the customer needs and that this process is reviewed. See the customer focus model in fig 5, adapted from ‘Management, Concepts and Practicies’.

As businesses have strived to become more customer focused inrelation to quality, they have used methods such as Total Quality Management (TQM)in an attemt to achieve this.

TQM employs a value based approach to quality management, a goal that an organisation aims to achieve or one that organisations may strive too but never achieve. Similar approaches to quality accept this, e.g Strategic Quality Management or SQM which as well as being value based, it is also systematic and sees quality improvement as having maximum straegic effect on the future of the organisation. This framework allows for the drive to improve quality being sustained without mking the claim that it is total quality.

TQM or SQM can be defined as

TQM provides an ‘umberella’ under which an orgaisation can use a variety of tools to improve quality. It is said that Japanise companies have moved away from having a framework to manage quality and simply have a corporate ethos that quality will be attained.

Strategically FST must stive to achieve the quality inline with Social Services Directorate and with Newcastle Local Authority corporate objectives. For this purpose the government has introduced its own Performance Assessment Framework, see appendix . This was highlighted in the latest Department of Health Annual Report in which it restates the government’s aims and objectives for Social Services, sets out the targets to be included in the Public Service Agreements and clarifies the expected performance in relation to those targets.

The aim of this is to help councils develop their own performance management processes, compare this to other councils and priorities improving their own performance. The targets for the FST form the basis of our Key Objectives, are reviewed annually by the D of H and quarterly by ourselves.

One of the concepts that build on quality control is the ‘just-in-time’ JIT principle. This principle is concerned with improving efficiency and reducing waste, however it is more appropriate to use this if your operation is a ‘pull’ operation, we have already classfied Duty as a ‘push’ system.

CAPACITY and SCHEDULING

Slack defines the capacity of an operation as

Managing capacity requires two major elements; the insight to determine the ‘steady-state’ or average levels of demand and the ability to be flexible at those time when the demand levels fluctuate. Slack referrs to this as‘ forcast’ which determins the level of demand, ‘level capacity’ which allows you to control demand by appointment, ‘flexible capacity’, that allows the operation to react to changes in demand and ‘established level of capacity’

Which enables the operation to balance it’s activities to avoid bottle necks, e.g queueing theory and work study.

Wild identifies six similar stages

Demand estimation.-estimation of demand.

Aggregate capacity planning- aims to develop a medium to long term staement of capacity requirements.

Master operations schedule (MOS)- this is a breakdown of the aggregate plan, showing when the operations are required for each item of demand.

Rough-cut capacity planning-this is the analysis of the MOS to test out its feasibility.

Detaied operations schedule (DOS)-If the MOS is feasible then a detailed schedule for all operations is completed.

Short-term resheduling and prioritising and controll-allows the operation to react to changes in demand.

Wild defines capacity management as

and describes scheduling as being

The management of capacity will be influenced by the objectives of the organisation, which determins what needs to be achieved and the structure of the operating system which will determin what can be achieved.

FST Duty was set up because we were unable to cope with the ammount of work the team inherrited along with the new work it was expected to do. Inorder to satisfy current and future demand we needed a different system. The expected work output of the FST is set externally by people/ systems that have little or no knowledge of how the team functions, it is my role to manage this and meet targets.

This poses certain problems for me

ɨ What is the capacity of FST?

ɨ How do I control the keep the capacity level?

ɨ Can I forecast demand?

ɨ Can we deal with fluctuations in demand?

ɨ How do we aviod bottleknecks?

ɨ

The directorate or some senior manager decided that unqualified staff and health staff can carry the same case load level as a fully qualified social worker, 10 cases. Using their model for deciding capacity FST has the resource of 17.5 staff that gives the potential capacity to work with 175 cases at anyone time. The target set per annum is in excess of 400 families. This allows each staff member to meet the needs of a maximum of families per annum-(pa + currnt case load of 10 = ) Staff are available to work approx 46 weeks per annum, therefore each family will receive 1.5 working weeks support. This amonts to 55.5 hours per family per annum, however as one worker has 10 cases at any one time then we need to divide this roughly by giving each family a total of 18.5 hours.

This method clearly does not work as it pays little attention to the needs of the customer apart from time.

How do I then control the demand, the duty was set up with mainly this in mind. The Duty function, operates on speed with an emphasis on the assessment and planning stage of the service rather than the intensive support stage, this requires fewer resources than the family support function as it is seen as short term and will and will provide the imputs for family support. Therefore the Duty system operates 4 times more effeciently than the family support, but can not meet any of the long term expectations this emphasises the interdependancy of both operations.



The duty system also allows some control over the capacity level in the sense that it can filter out less urgent cases and deal with them direct. This also reduces the queue of families waiting for the family support operation.

The forecasting of demand is difficult, there are some seasonal variations e.g. September and October are always bussy because of the reamergence of schooling problems, Febuary is always a time of hightenned stress in families due to loan implications of the financial cost of X-mass. (loan sharks not TSB) One way I have forecast is to look at historical data. This entailed extrapalating data from several old data bases in an attempt to identify issues for the future. This is known as quantitive forecasting and differs from qualitive forecasting which involves surveys and questionnaires etc…and depends on making judgments about the information.

Fluctuations in demand are delt with by the flexibility of the operation, although operating am-5pm the workers are contracted to be available 8.0am-8pm, seven days per week. This enables the working day dedicated to Duty to be extended at any time aith no added financial costs. The workers are empowered to adjust this time themselves, it does not need the operational manager to decide.

The issue of bottlenecking is a frequent concern at the FST, if cases can not progress from Duty into family support because family support does not have the capacity then the whole operation becomes constrained. Strategically it would be benificial to increase the resources for family support but this is not always possible. Sceduling in service opreations is not as clear as in manufacturing, where Gantt charts have been used for many years as a method of control, withtime charted on a horizontal axis and actions/tasks on a vertical axis. Horisontal bars represent plannes scedules and the time required for each task. I have never attempted to schedule for Duty or family support using tools such as Gantt, but feel confident now to try and will include this as a possible improvement.

Most of what I have discussed in this assignment is based on maintaining the operation and micro-operations that I am responsible for. There are areas that can be improved and this reflects the complete absence of any theoretical backround when these operations were first established. However it would be wrong for me to simply leave it at that as it would be tantermount to complacency which could be the end of a reletively new service like ours. In fact this could give me the edge as I am convinced that few managers in socail work have this background or if they do they appear to place little value in implementing it.

surgestions for improvement

ɨ Accurate information from customers updated regularily.

ɨ Schedule both operations using Gantt chart.

ɨ Improve monitoring inorder to speed up the output from the family support system to prevent bottle-necking.

ɨ Stop fire fighting.

ɨ Review the operations by asking

1 Where should we be?

Where are we?

What are our objectives?

4 How do we meet these objectives?

5 Has the environment changed?

6 Has the competition changed?



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Friday, August 10, 2012

how to arrange flowers

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Demonstration Speech

Weddings, birthday, anniversaries, get well gifts. We have all used flowers in some kind of occasion in our lives. Today, I am here to show how to assemble flowers into a beautiful arrangement. I took a floristry class in high school and have arranged flowers for many occasions since then. In this demonstration, I will show you a simple technique to arrange almost any flower that will add the perfect finishing touch to any occasion.

I. You must cut and clean your flowers properly along with having the proper vase.

A. Separate your flowers by length and cut them according to the size of the vase.

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B. Clean your fern by wiping the stem and clipping them as you do the flowers.

C. Choose a vase that will fit your arrangement.

D. Fill vase about half way with water.

II. Arranging the fern in the vase is a very simple technique.

A. Arrange four fern in a north-south-east-west pattern.

B. Arrange one fern between each one of the first four.

C. Stand two fern up back-to-back in the center of the vase.

III. The flowers in the vase must be arranged in a simple pattern.

A. Arrange four flowers in a north-south-east-west direction as you did the fern.

B. Arrange one flower between each of the first four, but raising these a little higher than the first four.

C. Place one flower between the two fern that are standing back to back.

D. Arrange three flowers around the center in a diamond like pattern.

IV. The finishing touches can bring out the beauty in your arrangement.

A. Babies breath makes a great finishing touch.

B. Babies breath can be place in any gap in the arrangement.

C. Babies breath does not have to be in water.

In conclusion, arranging flowers is a very simple task and is not as difficult as it appears. Hopefully at your next occasion or holiday, you too, will be able to make someone’s heart bloom with a beautiful arrangement.

Audience Analysis

My audience for my demonstration speech will be a group of women. The audience will include women from ages 5 to 55.

The occupations of this audience will range from professional, non-professional, and unemployed women. The older part of my audience will be unemployed, while the younger part is going to be employed in both professional and non-professional jobs. In this audience, there will be no one that will be speaking a second language. Everyone in this audience will speak English.

The religious background of my audience will be Catholic, Lutheran, and non-denominational religions. This should not be a major issue in this speech. Hobbies in this audience will range from shopping, sewing, and arts and crafts, and gardening. These women are also interested in flowers, which brings them to this demonstration. The cultural background of this audience will range from Italian, Polish, Irish, German, French, Albanian, and Spanish.

Residency among the audience will be mainly Macomb County. Some women have traveled from both Oakland and Wayne Counties as well.

There will be approximately 0 women in the audience. The speech will be given in a room with me at the focal point. Given the size of the audience, the demonstration will be given first, then the women will be doing the project on their own.

The audience’s feelings on me as the speaker will be good ones. They will look at me as a professional, and I will conduct the speech a professional manner. The audience feels excited about being there and being able to learn about a new task that they can use in their lives. Therefore, the demonstration will be done in a professional yet fun matter that will make the women feel comfortable and enjoy themselves.



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Wednesday, August 8, 2012

Walmart Analysis

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No other mass retailer or trading community -- domestic, foreign, or global -- has developed a system even close to WalMart’s capabilities in supply chain and distribution management and optimization. From 187 to 1 WalMart spent over $700 million on its satellite communications network, computers, and related equipment. However, the possibility of competitors having allocated significant resources to developing state-of-the-art data warehouses that, like WalMart’s, go beyond collecting point-of-sale data to drive replenishment. The new data warehouses address and understand demographics, individual stores, and customer preferences. To continue to maintain IT as a strategic advantage, WalMart must continue development to further increase the effectiveness and efficiency of its supply chain management systems, to advance the development of its distribution management system, and add new capabilities as the technologies and customer service opportunities arise.

In looking at WalMart more closely we realize that since WalMart is a traditional company its value chain is its supply chain. In order to strengthen its value chain we must focus on strengthening components in their supply chain. As we further analyze the company, WalMart maintains a win-win situation with its suppliers since they order large quantities and they represent one of the largest customers for their suppliers. If we were to analyze WalMart like any other company and focus on its value chain rather than supply chain, WalMart still comes out on top. And more customer service.

Walmart is one of the biggest global retailers in the world, operating in several different countries around the world, with multiple formats, all tied together by a state-of-the-art retail

distribution system known as a Retail Link. The corporation typically seeks market areas where there is a customer base of 5,000 to 5,000 and targets small to medium-sized towns in particular. Historically, the corporation avoids big city markets where land prices may be too high and competition from other large retailers much stiffer. Instead, Wal-Marts strategy has been to locate in peripheral, semi-rural areas or city outskirts where it may draw from a regional clientele.

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Some of WalMart’s sustainable sources of competitive advantage lie largely in their goal to providing their customers with the “Everyday Low Prices.” This assurance along with the fact that they are willing to match or beat any of their competitors prices leads their customers to place more faith in WalMart. WalMart’s aim to always serve their customers with a smile as well as always be of assistance is another reason they are able to stay ahead of their competition. Sticking steadfastly to the two rules of thumb on customer satisfaction and low price guarantee has lead WalMart to become the leader in their competitive industry.

Relationships

Descriptive statistics

Some of the key strengths of WalMart are in its value chain activities, most importantly its primary activities. WalMart has an excellent warehouse and inventory management system on hand, a segment of the value chain system, and hence they are able to stay ahead of their competitors. Their IT focuses on data warehousing and improving their inbound and outbound logistics. Also their shipping and order processing to each of their different store locations is done just in time so that none of their stores is lacking in any of the required inventory. Promotions are a big deal for WalMart. Their heavy reliance on advertisement to boost their sales and increase their number of customers has lead them to their current position today on the New York Stock exchange. WalMart relies on advertising to boost their sales and to build traffic, however in 1 advertising costs were only 1.5% of WalMart’s discount store sales oppose to .1% for direct competitors. Their IT helps them determine which products are the most popular to the customers, and thus they are able to offer the lowest prices on the most needed products. Advertising these sale items attracts more customers to their stores. Customer relations is very important at WalMart since their customer retention rate must be high in order to maintain their level of growth. Due to better inventory management, and higher quality of service they are able to offer customers a lower price on most products and thus increase the customer’s willingness to pay. All of the activities described above are segments of the Primary activities of WalMart’s value chain system.



Some of WalMart’s weaknesses lie in their recent entrance into the Asian markets. Since their European competitors have already made their foothold there, WalMart is at a slight disadvantage at gaining customers there. Also the value chain system applied to the American markets needs to be altered for their Asian markets because the tastes of the Asian consumers vary greatly from their American counterparts. WalMart is also reaching the saturation point in the American markets. Their long time presence has lead to use every trick in the book to gain customer satisfaction the old school way, but now with the use of IT they can further increase their customer market by analyzing the market trends of their various locations. Their new IT will give them further insight on what the customers really want and they will be able to focus and selling and advertising the demanded products at the lowest market prices to beat out their competitors. According to the competitive forces model, analyzing WalMart’s stance in the Asian markets reveals that the threat of new entrants into the industry is quite possible, since they are trying to sell foreign products to consumers who would prefer the local products. The threat of competitors is quite strong as they have to compete with the European stores who have established themselves there well before WalMart’s arrival. However, the new IT will give them the ability to determine which products are in most demand in which locations and then switch the order levels with suppliers accordingly, thus avoiding any losses and in fact guaranteeing a profit.



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Tuesday, August 7, 2012

Compare and Contrast

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Although Michael Jordan and Larry Bird are two of the greatest players ever, they both have some differences and similarities. Here are some of their similarities. Jordan and Bird where dominant players at an young age. Michael Jordan won the slam dunk contest, and Larry Bird won the three point contest in there history. Both players have several championship rings. Michael Jordan and Larry Bird are the two best players to ever play in the NBA. Well, however; I can not say that both are the best to ever play the game because the NBA has never come to a close. Only if the league came to an end right now, then maybe I can say that, “they are the best two players to ever play in the NBA.” Other NBA lovers may have a different thought than I have. I probably can start World War Three with that statement. They both were key players on the teams that they played on. Jordan and Bird both made it to the All-Star team several of times. They both had a fun raiser for the Ronald McDonald House. They love to help the children, and give back to their community. They both are not playing the game for money it is because they love the game. Even though money is not everything to them, they both seem to have lots of it. They also appeared on a McDonald commercial together. Jordan has a large shoe contract. Bird has a large NBA contract. Over the years they both ended up with similar shoe and NBA contracts. They attended division one colleges. Both played college basketball. Both won a NCAA championship title. Both players appeared on the movie Space Jams together. They both play golf together. They both retire, and came back to the league. Michael Jordan came back as a co-manager of the Washington Wizards. Larry Bird came back as the coach of the Indiana Pacers. Both players just had a successful life. There similarities are not what make them the two greatest players ever, it is there accomplishments that makes them the greatest two players ever to play in the NBA.

Although they lots of similarities, they both have several differences. Larry Bird won nine NBA titles. Micha0el Jordan only won six NBA titles. Both were great accomplishments, but in NBA years, nine NBA titles is a whole lot more than six titles. But still today they say that, “Michael Jordan is the greatest player to ever play the game.” Jordan average .1 points a game in his career. Bird average 0.4 points game a game in his career. Jordan has his on shoe line, Air Jordan’s. Bird never had a signature pair of sneakers. Larry Bird’s throw back jersey in stores cost seven hundred ninety nine dollars. Michael Jordan’s throw back jersey in stores cost six hundred ninety nine dollars. Michael Jordan played for the Chicago Bull, and Larry Bird played for the Boston Celtics. Jordan also came out retirement to play for the Washington Wizards. Bird came out of retirement to coach the Indiana Pacers. Both teams seem not to be able to win another NBA titles without the two greatest players to ever play in the NBA. Although they are the greatest players ever, they both have there differences and similarities. They both do not have to be exactly a like to be the greatest players to ever play they game. All I can say is that, “they are all time greats.”



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Monday, August 6, 2012

Discuss Lawrence’s treatment of relationships in two of the short stories

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Lawrence, during his writing career, had an interest in relationships, situations and ideas for which he explored to aid his story writing. Stories like Odour of Chrysanthemums was based on actual experiences, on his Aunt Polly who lived in the house described in the story and whose husband was killed in a mining accident. But, the emotions explored were drawn heavily on Lawrence imagines in retrospect on his own mother as she waits for the drunken miner, his father, to come home. The relationship between Lawrence’s parents was never stable due to his fathers taste for alcohol and the aggression he inflicted upon Lawrence’s mother, and she was able to tolerate this. This conflict probably occurred due to the differences of their personalities and background where Lawrence’s father was an uneducated man who was an alcoholic and was unable to read and write. Lawrence’s mother, in comparison, was from a more wealthy background and had an interest in reading and sometimes wrote her own poetry.

The two main characters in Odour of Chrysanthemums, Walter and Elizabeth Bates were comparable to those of Lawrence’s parents, and these fictional characters represented the true characteristics of Lawrence’s parents from his point of view. Elizabeth Bates and Lawrence’s mother were the responsible, maternal, practical & stern housewife. On the other hand, Walter Bates and Lawrence’s father were the alcoholic, selfish and aggressive working-class. This was a traditional stereotype of the early 0th century. But what was striking was the way he portrayed the two fictional characters relationships liken to the one he saw and experience between his father and mother.

Lawrence described the story, similar to the one he experienced with his parents involved, as the kitchen takes on a life of its own, with the help of the fire. But, as the master does not return the fire becomes menacing, “the room was dark red.” Annie (Walter and Elizabeth’s daughter), with her child’s innocence, finds excitement in the glowing coals. A disillusioned Elizabeth can only see that it will need making up with coal, another cause for complaint for her awaited husband. Annie’s nature and love of beauty through her delight at the flowers in her mother’s apron and this led to a conclusion that Elizabeth was once as receptive to beauty as this little girl. Even the scent of chrysanthemums is hateful to Elizabeth because of the connotations of misery it brings including her marriage and the drunkenness of her husband. In the menace of the room as they wait, the children playing but ever on the alert, the mother determinedly sewing, even the flannel makes a “wounded sound.” These are some of the moments of the story, which leads to the downfall of Walter’s and Elizabeth’s relationships breakdown as her patience is being driven away. Although she is angry, she is more afraid with her husbands doing, “her anger was tinged with fear.”

Although the relationship between Elizabeth Bates and Walter Bates was not in an admirable state but the complete opposite, Walters death made Elizabeth realise what sort of relationship they had and how bad it was, ‘ She had denied him what he was-she saw it now. She had refused him as himself. -And this had been her life, and his life. -She was grateful to death, which restored the truth.’ ‘Death’ was used as a metaphor as it made Elizabeth realise how dead her relationship was. ‘Death’ restored the truth and made her feel she was not dead and that her husband never existed. To the mother he is the still “clear and clean and white, beautiful as ever a child was made.” But Elizabeth sees that she has never really known this man as she “embraced the body of her husband, with cheek and lips. She seemed to be listening, inquiring, trying to get some connection. But she could not. She was driven away. He was impregnable.” She realised that whilst she has been fearing, living and sleeping with this man, she has not been actually realised this man. And towards the end, with Elizabeth’s realisation that she is, in fact, powerless to control her life. “Life is her immediate master.” She winces “from death, her ultimate master.”

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Tickets Please was based on Lawrence’s experience in England during World War I when women were left behind to work and men went on to fight and men who were left behind were “unfit for active service cripples and hunchback” just like Lawrence who had tuberculosis. The protagonists are Annie and John Thomas, a rather good-looking man who enjoys gallivanting. Annie wants her revenge on him as he drops her when she takes too much “intelligent interests” in him. Lawrence writes about what he saw when women stereotypically inferior to men, began their rise to power over their male counterparts with their newfound jobs.

The prominent male character, John Thomas, is involved with a series of women and he was ‘tall and agile’ and ‘good-looking’. There was a “considerable scandal about John Thomas in a half a dozen villages.” His flirtatious behaviour is well known. He is a philanderer and enjoys moving from one woman to the next, “Walks out with the newcomer.” John Thomas has a “nocturnal presence” in the lives of women. He belongs with the ladies because when Laura Sharp said “ladies only,” John Thomas replies with “That’s me!” John Thomas had “all the arts of love making” and he was “especially good at holding a girl.” This shows his seductive charms and how experienced he is. But John Thomas is still shallow and lacks commitment and hates “intelligent interest” which is why he left Annie and remains a “nocturnal presence.” He consciously works his way through the women working on the trams and leaving them distraught. There was an imperious refusal to share Annie’s affections. John Thomas didn’t want to become an individual to Annie. Still he shows Annie that he has moved on to his next women by his actions, “Letting her see by the movement of his head that he had gone away to somebody else for the time being.” The story is more based around short-term relationships caused by John Thomas as he is consciously hurting women. Annie is well built and manly. She is “perfectly at ease,” independent and makes a good job of working on the trams. She was assertive, forward, liberated, strong and powerful as “defied convention.” But on relationship front, Annie who wanted to move the relationship further with John Thomas and wanted to “consider him a person” but she gets turned down because of John Thomas determination to remain a “nocturnal presence”, Annie is “staggered” and she then weepy with “fury, indignation, desolation and misery.” And finally she felt “despair” towards him before feeling vicious, angry and maybe regretful as she tells the girls to “shut up”. But she was quite “excited and happy” during her time with him and feels obliged to let John Thomas draw himself closer, “She could hardly for shame repulse him when he put his arm around her.” She feels this because he has paid for all of her rides and she feels she can be complaisant. This sort of attitude shows how the women used to melt in his presence. Even though Annie knew John Thomas she was foolish enough to “pride” herself that he could not leave her. When he did leave, she was “determined” to have her own back. When John Thomas arrived at the waiting room Muriel says, “Shut the door, boy.” She is treating him like a child. Usually it would be John Thomas giving the orders, as he is the “chief.” This is a suggestion of the switch of power. The climax in the story is when the prominent male is faced with the situation that he has to choose one of the female characters. Tickets Please is vengeful, violent and vindictive and the women are ruthless. The women seem to behave hysterically as they start to “giggle wildly” and “helplessly.” This shows them losing their power. All of the women “hoped he would look at her.” They all secretly wish to be chosen. Milly accepts however Annie declines. It would be humiliating for Annie to accept as she feels she has to decline for the girls as the whole point of beating John Thomas so they could prove a point to him and to accept John Thomas would undermine it all. But when John Thomas chose Annie he was hopeful that he could get himself out of the situation and he would gain victory. Annie immediately let go off him like he was a “hot coal.” She felt “a kind of agony in her” as “something was broken in her.” The girls have lost control and are “stupefied” by their “unnatural behaviour.” Even after all the taunting, tormenting and goading John Thomas would undermine it all. John Thomas asserting his authority while being cornered like an animal gets him nowhere but by choosing Annie he turns the tables. Despite the sheer violence they thought would ensure victory, but they were wrong when, this lead Annie to feel very undermined.

Tickets Please was not really about relationship but the shift in power and the internal battle of the sexes due to bad treatment. But John Thomas lost no matter how superior he was it was number that beat him. Relationship was not taken seriously in John Thomas mind, which lead to heart broken women. Odour of Chrysanthemums was truly based on relationship where it never existed. A false presence which only been found when a life was taken.



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Friday, August 3, 2012

Frida Kahlo's own perceptin of herself

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Frida Kahlos Own Perception of Her Body



In Glovers book I The Philosophy and Psychology of Personal Identity, he states my corpse is not me( 1) to Frida Kahlos paintings Self Portrait with Hair Cut Off, and The Little Deer this quote is most applicable because in more than one way Frida Kahlo felt she was already dead. In Both paintings portrays someone who she feels she is but is not. These paintings depict her longing to be in another body because suffering she endured from the physical pain of the accident and the mental pain she felt from her marriage. First, a brief biography of Frida Kahlo.

Frida Kahlo had a history of dressing rather plain . She did this because she was

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severely teased in her school due to the fact that she had a deformed leg. This deformed

leg was the result of an accident on a bus on September 17, 15.( ) Frida was greatly injured in this accident; she was found to have eleven factures of the right leg and her right foot had been dislocated and crushed and the left shoulder was also dislocated. Her spine and pelvis were also injured. To top off all this her collarbone, two ribs and the pubic bone were all broken. The worst injury of all is an iron rod that had gone through her left hip and came out of her vagina.( ) This injury is what led Frida to feel inadequate as a woman.

All of this pain led Frida to be a very rebellious teenager. While going to school in Mexico City, Frida met Diego Rivera, who she eventually married. After the accident, while bedridden, Frida’s mom gave her the first art set she owned. This art set provided her with hours and hours of entertainment, and put forth her great interest in painting.

Frida painted Self Portrait with Hair Cut off after the discovery of Diegos affair with her own sister Cristina( 4 ). Self Portrait with Hair Cut Off is of Frida sitting in a chair in the center of a room with her hair lying all around her and the scissors that did the act in her hand. She is dressed in an oversized mans suit with scissors in her hand. At the top of this painting there are lyrics to a song that read If I ever loved you it was because of your hair, but now that your bald I do not love you anymore. It is rumored that these words were told to Frida by Diego.( 5 ) This painting portrays that she is uncomfortable in her female skin and needs to express herself the way that she really feels. After reading another biography of Frida Kahlo I have learned and now believe a theory about the specific location of the scissors in this painting. The scissors are in the same location as the surgical pincers in the painting The Two Fridas that were connected to the miniature portrait of Diego. This symbolizes that she has “cut” her ties with Diego.( 6 )

Frida’s spirit was definitely not a match for her body. Frida was always a spontaneous person who had so much ambition, yet she was trapped in a body that was not her own. Frida, who wanted to run free was instead trapped in a body cast, her own prison that was the result of the tragic accident I talked about earlier, but in Self Potrrait With Hair Cut Off Frida finally breaks free from another prison, her female body. This painting Frida really let her emotions run. Out of all the paintings that Kahlo did this one gives the most insight into her personal feelings, and relates the most to the quote from Glover.. Fridas personal feelings of femininity are the most present in this painting.( 7 ) Even though she is wearing a mans suit Frida still has her feminine face, high heels, and earrings, and that oh so melancholic look on her face. Frida, who grew up in Mexico during the 0s and 0s, didnt have much rights as a woman. Frida also had a very controlling husband, Diego. I feel that all this animosity led her to feel in adequate as a woman. Frida and Diego, although married, did not remain faithful to each other. In that era, it was more widely accepted for a man to cheat but not a woman. She is wearing her husbands clothes in this painting is that secretly she wants to be Diego. Diego had everything, he was a successful artist, had money, and also a known Playboy, and could get away with practically everything.. Although Frida was successful while she was still alive she just couldnt feel as important as he was. Although she loved him very much, she wanted his freedoms to have all the public affairs, the marriages, and the respect that he had from his fellow peers. Frida also had a thing for women( 8) this would of probably been more accepted if she was a man. Growing up Frida had a history of dressing up as a man. All sorts of feelings led to this painting, the teasing, the heartbreak, feelings of inadequacy, and just not feeling beautiful.



In The Little Deer there is a body of a deer frolicking through the forest with Frida’s head. And the odd thing about this painting is that the deer has nine arrows stuck in its side. As in Self Portrait With Hair Cut Off , Frida is not in her own body, she is in the body of a male deer which is indicated by the impressive antlers and the male “appendages.” This painting is quite disturbing is set in the forest with water in the background and the buck which has magnificent antlers is being hunted. Even though it is a male deer Frida still has her earrings on. This painting was painted after Frida and Diego remarried.

This painting like the previous one really associate with the quote from Glover. Because of this quite obvious that her corpse is not her own but is instead that of a deer. During this time in Fridas life she was suffering from many back and spinal problems. This painting depicts the pain that she felt from her injuries. Most of the arrows are in her backside, the site of her pain, and of her surgeries in the years following her accident. In the last years of her life Frida had to wear twenty-eight different back braces. The arrows in the deer’s back were shot by Diego. Although Diego loved her dearly, he was never really true to her thus “backstabbing” her. Frida probably felt just like a animal being hunted while around Diego. The Look on Fridas face is one of great sadness Im sure before she painted this she was greatly let down by Diego once again. Frida felt like a “deer prey to suffering.”( ) The trees in the background are all dead and correspond to the number of arrows in the deer’s backside. Frida also wrote the word “carma” which means fate on the bottom of the painting. She did this because like the deer she knows her fate as well which is death.( 10 ) Another factor that contributes to this is what Salomon Grimberg feels that The Little Deer reveals Kahlo’s preoccupation with transformation and reincarnation.( 11 )This verifies that Kahlo believed in the Pre-Hispanic tradition of placing a dry branch on a grave to help the dead reach paradise, with resurrection the dry branch

would be transformed into a green branch.( 1 )

Frida Kahlo although one of the greatest artists of all time, really had some issues. Years of torment, and anguish led Kahlo to really depreciate herself. All her pain and suffering really just made her want to be someone else which was portrayed in these two paintings. But then again we would not have such inspiring paintings if it was not for her pain and heartbreak. Being brought up on her paintings I really appreciate her talent. I am happy she at least got to celebrate her first solo art exhibition in Mexico. Which she couldnt miss despite doctors orders of staying in bed Even though in some ways she actually held true to this showing up to the art exhibition in her bed literally. this just proves that Frida had a very strong spirit and was willing to go on even when her body wasnt.

Bibliography

1) Glover, Jonathan.book I The Philosophy and Psychology of Personal Identity.

Penguin USA (Paper); Reissue edition (September 11) pg.8

) Alcantra, Isabel and Egnolff, Sandra. Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera.

Prestel Verlag New York. 1 page.16

) Alcantra, Isabel and Egnolff, Sandra. Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera.

Prestel Verlag New York. 1 page.17

4) Alcantra, Isabel and Egnolff, Sandra. Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera.

Prestel Verlag New York. 1 page.5 side note

5) Alcantra, Isabel and Egnolff, Sandra. Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera.

Prestel Verlag New York. 1 page.7

6) Herrera, Hayden. Frida Kahlo The Paintings.

Harper Collins Publishers Inc. 11 page.85- 86

7)Alcantra, Isabel and Egnolff, Sandra. Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera.

Prestel Verlag New York. 1 page.7

8)Alcantra, Isabel and Egnolff, Sandra. Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera.

Prestel Verlag New York. 1 page. 51

)Herrera, Hayden. Frida Kahlo The Paintings.

Harper Collins Publishers Inc. 11 page. 1

10)Herrera, Hayden. Frida Kahlo The Paintings.

Harper Collins Publishers Inc. 11 page.1

11)Herrera, Hayden. Frida Kahlo The Paintings.

Harper Collins Publishers Inc. 11 page.85- 86

1)Salomon Grimberg. Frida Kahlo , exhibition catalogue,

The Meadows Museum, Southern Methodist University, Dallas 18 page 7-8



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Wednesday, August 1, 2012

Country Analysis Report Of The People’s Republic of China

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Introduction

Diageo PLC (NYSE DEO), formed by the 17 merger between alcoholic beverage giant Guinness with food and spirits company Grand Metropolitan, is the world’s largest producer of alcoholic drinks. Its beers and distilled spirits include Smirnoff, Johnnie Walker, Guinness, Baileys, J&B, Captain Morgan, Cuervo, Tanqueray, and Beaulieu Vineyard and Sterling Vineyards wines. Diageo helps stock bars and shelves in over 00 countries around the globe. After earning enormous profits from its major markets in North America, Great Britain, Ireland, and Spain, the company is planning to enter the alcoholic beverages market in the People’s Republic of China with its popular flavored malt beverages.

Like beer, flavored malt beverages such as Smirnoff Ice and Captain Morgan Gold are created in breweries using water, yeast, fermented malted barley and hops, but unlike beer, they are then flavored with citrus, vodka and other highly concentrated ingredients.

This country analysis report will assess the investment potential for Diageo’s expansions of production facilities and sales in China. Various factors including economic, political, infrastructural, ethical, and cultural conditions in China will be evaluated in detail, as well as Chinese market potential for flavored malt beverages (Harmonized System Number 0.00.0000), and this report will wrap up with a recommendation on the steps that should be taken for Diageo.

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Economics Environment

Over the past half-century, China has experienced a dramatic change; an underdeveloped nation transformed into one of the world’s fastest growing economies. Since the beginning of the “open-door?policy in 178 and the accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 001, China’s economy has grown swiftly from a low base, and developed wide consumer market.

China has the biggest population in the world at 1. billion people. 0% of the population lives in the urban areas, while the remaining 70% is concentrated in the countryside. China is also the world’s third largest country by area, covering .6 million square kilometers. Despite a GDP of USD 1.4 trillion, China is still one of the poorest countries due to the huge population spread. Rural per capita GDP is only USD 8.66 and urban per capita GDP is about USD 06.8. Labor cost per worker in manufacturing is approximately $800 per year with $,885 value added per worker in manufacturing.

China has the world’s largest market size and growth rate. Diageo PLC will be able to find a huge market demand and a cheap labor supply in China. However, the low GDP per capita indicates that not every Chinese consumer can afford Diageo’s products because their income is below the World Bank’s USD 1 per day standard for absolute poverty.

Market and Industry

American companies continue to have mixed experiences in China. Some have been extremely profitable, while others have struggled. To be successful in China, Diageo PLC must thoroughly investigate the Chinese market for its flavored malt beverages.

The alcoholic drinks production market in China is diverse and extremely fragmented. Market size and potential vary from region, and nationally recognized brands are rare. There are currently about 40,000 distillers in China, all with varying degrees of production capabilities and national distribution. Miller Brewing, Anheuser-Busch, Allied Domecg, Bacardi, and Fortune brands have all established in China and experienced volume sales rather than margin growth.

Chinese are near the top consumers in Asia, and consume annually about 1 liters of spirits per capita; therefore, the growth of importing spirits is expected to continue. Until the large price differences are reduced, imports will have difficulty displacing domestic competition.

As compared to spirits, beer is a more popular drink in China. However, the younger Chinese generation prefer the lighter and better tasting beverage over beer from the influence of the globalization of Western culture.

China will be a big market for Diageo with its increasing demand for foreign alcoholic drinks. However, with all the domestic and foreign competitions in Chinese alcoholic drinks production market, and the majority of Chinese favoring beer, Diageo may want to market its drinks differently from other competitors, and focus on the younger generation segment such as college and white-collar workers in urban areas.

Business Climate

Before China’s accession to the WTO, China prohibited foreign companies from distributing imported products. Since WTO implementation, China has worked towards liberalizing its distribution system to provide rights for U.S. firms. The U.S. Commercial Service and the International Partner Search will assist new-to-market firms like Diageo to locate, screen, and assess potential qualified overseas sales representatives, agents, distributors, joint venture partners, and licensees for the products.

Representative offices are the easiest type of offices for foreign firms to set up in

China, but Chinese law to performing “liaison?activities limits these offices. Therefore, they cannot sign sales contracts or directly bill customers. A locally incorporated equity or cooperative joint venture with one or more Chinese partners and a wholly foreign-owned enterprise are also other alternatives to develop markets for a company’s products. With careful selection, training, and constant contact, a U.S. company can obtain good market representation from a Chinese trading company. However, most of these trading companies cannot provide diversified coverage throughout China due to transportation and communication difficulties.

If Diageo decides to open its market in China, It will have to choose an entry mode for the company in China first. A joint venture is maybe the best choice for a big brewing company like Diageo. A good Chinese partner will have the connections to help smooth over red tap and obstructive bureaucrats, and in-country production avoids import restrictions including relatively high tariffs and unreasonable restrictions. Diageo will also have greater controls over both intellectual property and marketing, however, it should bear in mind that joint venture is time-consuming and resource demanding.

Political Environment

Although there has been considerable reform of China’s economic model, the same is far less true of Chinese political system. The Chinese Communist Party still dominates the entire political apparatus, and its leaders make all major policy decisions. China faces a growing disconnection between the demands of its reforming economy and a political system that is largely ill suited to meet their needs.

Chinas new president and party leader, Hu Jintao, is most likely to focus on improving democracy within the party, such as giving party branches greater choice in the selection of their bosses. However, Mr. Hu would have to be sure to obtain support from Jiang Zemin, his predecessor, who is still in charge of the armed forces.

China has traditionally restricted imports through high tariffs and taxes, non-tariff measures, trading rights restriction, and other barriers. Chinese officials are increasingly aware that such protective measures contribute to endemic economic inefficiencies and encourage smuggling. To address these problems, the Chinese government agreed to dramatically reduce many barriers as part of it WTO accession. China also has reformed its tax system to minimize distinctions between domestic and foreign entities according to the principle of national treatment. In addition, China has substantially reduced the number of goods subject to import quotas and as part of its WTO commitments will continue to phase out or notify to the WTO all remaining quotas.

On top of normal tariff duties, both foreign and domestic enterprises are required to pay value-added taxes (VAT) and business taxes. VAT is assessed after the tariff, and incorporates the value of the tariff. China is now bound by WTO rules to offer identical tax treatment for domestic and imported products.

All products sold in China must be marked in the Chinese language with the relevant information. According to the Food Labeling Standards of China, imported foods shall have clear markings that indicate the country of origin in addition to the name and address of the general distributor that is registered in the country.

It will be better off for Diageo to establish factories in China instead of importing into China so that it can avoid various restrictions, tariffs, and taxes. In addition, it will be much easier to label its products in Chinese.

Country Risks

China is a country with great risk for importers, exporters, and investors. The outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) virus had negative economic effects on most industries in China, especially the service industry. The Chinese government is very concerned about the price depletion and growing unemployment caused by the SARS outbreak. Another concern is the growing disparity between urban and rural incomes because there are huge income gaps between the wealthy coastal regions and the poor interior regions. The central government of China acknowledges that unemployment and income inequality are growing problems and chief potential threats to stability in China.

China’s political relations with the U.S. temporarily deteriorated following the accidental bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in May 1 and the collision of a U.S. EP- reconnaissance aircraft and a Chinese fighter in international airspace in April 001. Bilateral relations have gradually recovered from both incidents. China came out firmly in support of the United States following the September 11 terrorist attacks. Relations further improved with the October 001 and February 00 visits by President Bush to China and the October 00 visit of then President Jiang Zemin to the United States. However, differences remain between the U.S. and Chinese governments on some political issues such as non-proliferation, human rights, and rules over Tibet. All these issues will continue to color the relationship between the two countries.

Diageo needs to be tactful and knowledgeable of current political developments and risks involved. As Chinese service and entertainment industries continue on a downward spiral after the SARS crisis, demand for products related to these industries such as drinks and alcohol will decrease. There will also be the possibility of people in China banning U.S. goods if China and U.S. relation become worse.

Currency Issues

China has effectively pegged the exchange rate for its currency at RMB 8. to USD 1.00 since 17. With the fall in interest rates overseas, particularly the United States, China still maintained a good position in its balance of payments. Although some foreign observers believe that RMB is under-valued versus the U.S. dollar, the Chinese authorities have clearly indicated their belief that preserving stability in the exchange rate with the dollar serves China’s interests. Depreciation of the RMB will decrease the average family’s disposable income, meaning less and less people will be able to afford foreign goods. However, Diageo will be able to decrease its cost of doing business in China because U.S. dollar is valued more after RMB deprecates. Same amount of U.S. dollar will allow Diageo to purchase more goods in China.

In general, Chinese companies are not permitted to retain foreign exchange. In business deals with Chinese companies, U.S. companies have been asked to keep a portion of the Chinese companies?hard currency earnings in foreign bank accounts to avoid reporting and turning it over to the foreign exchange control authorities. In 17, China issued a new rule allowing some Chinese enterprises that meet a certain criteria to establish a foreign currency account in a designated bank, thus retaining a limited amount of foreign currency earnings. The banking sector is one area that has benefited from WTO accession. Client restriction on foreign banks?foreign currency services was one of the areas immediately removed upon China’s WTO accession, which meant foreign banks could offer foreign currency services to corporate and individual clients.

Ethics Environment

Corruption remains widespread in China. Although the government launched a high profile anti-corruption campaign, these efforts are hampered by the lack of truly independent investigative bodies. Numerous senior provincial and municipal officials came under scrutiny, but there are widespread reports that many senior officials and their family members used their connections to avoid prosecution. Banking and finance are among the sectors most afflicted by corruption, as are government procurements and construction projects. China’s business practices commonly involve “grease payments?which may be in violation of U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

For Diageo, it will be important to maintain goodwill with business associates while obeying both Chinese and U.S. laws. Diageo will have to make good judgment on what firms and banks to deal with, and which to stay away from. Any wrong move could lead to potential dangers in the future.

Infrastructure Analysis

Although developing at an impressive rate, China generally has very poor infrastructure. It is stricken with power shortages, weak transportation, and relies on the support of billions of dollars provided by foreigners. Recently, infrastructure investment has been a key element of China’s economic growth potential with major infusions scheduled for the road, railway, port, telecommunications, oil and gas, and coal sectors. Since 18, the Chinese government has issued about RMB 70 billion in special bonds to fund infrastructure projects aimed at stimulating the domestic economy.

Telecommunications

Infrastructure development in the telecommunications sector remains strong and China now boasts the largest wireless networks in the world. The Chinese government has made telecommunications and IT development a national priority and enacted preferential policy initiatives to promote telecommunications modernization throughout the country. Computer and Internet connections are also becoming more and more popular and affordable in China.

With the increasing rise of technology and development of the telecommunications system, Diageo should not have to worry about communicating employees in overseas company via internet and phone communications.

Transportations

China’s inadequate transport system constitutes a serious obstacle to future economic growth, with virtually every facet of it already run to capacity. The backbone of the system remains the railway. New railways recently constructed include a ,81 kilometers north-south link bisecting the existing coastal routes. The road network has also failed to keep pace with a rapid increase in the number of automobiles on the roads. Similar problems affect ports, of which Shanghai remains the most important, accounting for 0.7% of sea cargo handled. Despite the difficulties of distributing nationally in China, which stem largely from the country’s poor transportation infrastructure, the large volume sales and relatively low retail prices in China have encourage investors to set up regional plants.

Diageo should take into strong consideration about the relatively poor transportation systems in China. A company such as Diageo needs a strong transportation system to be able to ship its products across different parts of the country. Without a properly fitted system, delays and problems will certainly affect business for the company.

Human Resources

China had made considerable strides in reducing the number of illiterate people. In 000, illiteracy had decreased from 14% in 10 to 8% for males and % to 1% for females. The youth illiteracy rate is even lower % to 1% for males and 8% to 4% for females. Many rural schools are inadequately funded despite a notional nine years of compulsory education, and very small percentage of people attends college and higher education institutions.

China will continue to suffer in the future from an acute shortage of skilled personnel. Diageo will easily find workers in China that are suited for its labor-intensive beverage production; however, it might become a big problem for the company to find highly skilled management personnel to run the subsidiary in China.

Location

China is a collection of large and distinctly different regional markets. Studies have identified six regional markets each with a population of over 100 million and a GDP exceeding USD 0 billion

?Northeast ?Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning

?Greater Beijing ?Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, and Shandong

?Central Provinces ?Shaanxi, Henan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi, Sichuan, and Chongqing

?Greater Shanghai ?Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang

?Greater Guangdong ?Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Hong Kong

China’s central inland region is less developed and the west region is the least developed. Most of China’s economic and commercial activities are concentrated on the coastal regions such as Greater Beijing, Greater Shanghai, and Greater Guangdong.

Shanghai, the core of the Yangtze Delta Region, would be the ideal location for Diageo. There are more than 180 million consumers in this region over an area approximately the size of Great Britain. Shanghai is the natural focal point of all the potential wealth on the Yangtze River basin. As communication, power and transportation keep developing in the basin, the Shanghai area will soon surpass the regional wealth of South China. With regard to distribution, Shanghai has a quite decent developed system. The Chinese government in this area has encouraged retailing, and the number of supermarkets rises systematically. Shanghai also offers special investment zones offering a variety of incentives for foreign investors, the most famous example being the Pudong area in Shanghai. Furthermore, Shanghai consumers are traditionally reckoned as people open to foreign influences and fond of international brands, this fact together with their relatively high incomes have proven to be good reasons for Diageo to locate and invest in Shanghai.

Culture Analysis

Hofstede Scale indicated that China has many different workplace values compared to the United States. China rates high on long-term orientation/Confucian dynamism (118), and power distance (80), moderate on assertiveness (50), and getting low scores on uncertainty avoidance (8), and individualism (10). In general, the Chinese are focused on the future, value dedication, hard work, thrift, perseverance, and saving for the long-term. The average Chinese worker will concentrate on fitting in with the group and maintaining well defined social networks and boundaries.

Regional Customs

There are many different provinces, dialects and regional cultures throughout China. Diageo will need to segment the market and understand the differences among the different regions. Since it is recommended that Diageo put forth most of its marketing efforts to Shanghai consumers, Diageo managers must understand how Chinese urban mentality and its traditions interface when dealing with both marketing and employee situations.

Consumers

Chinese consumers are pragmatic, price and quality conscious and careful planners. Most Chinese consumers are sensitive to price and will usually choose the less expensive product unless they can be swayed by better after-sales service or clearly better product quality. While they clearly prefer imported, high-quality products, they do not blindly buy Western. China’s consumer preferences tend to differ according to geographic location, as regions vary in their levels of economic development. As a matter of fact, there are also significant differences in purchasing power and attitudes between rural and urban residents. A number of Chinese consumers can afford foreign-made appliances, food and other goods. Diageo needs to bear in mind that 70% of all Chinese live in rural area, and they look for quality at a good price.

Relationships

Personal relationships (“guanxi?in Chinese) in business are critical. The Chinese feel more comfortable dealing with “old friends? and it is important for exporters, importers, and investors to establish and maintain close relationships with their Chinese counterparts and relevant government agencies. It is equally important that American exporters encourage strong personal relationships between their Chinese partners, agents or distributors and the buyers and end-users. A web of strong personal relationships will help ensure smoother development of business in China.

Recommendation

Before arriving at a recommendation, it is important to summarize the anticipated advantages and disadvantages Diageo will face in China

Pros Cons

Largest market size Poor consuming power

Cheap labor supply Stiff competition

Stable currency Slim profit margins

WTO accession High country risks

Potential market in Shanghai Unstable relation with U.S.

High long-term orientation dynamism Widespread corruption

Poor infrastructure

Lack of highly skilled workers

It is not recommended that Diageo enter the Chinese beverage market at this time. Competition in this industry is intense, profits are slim, and there are great risks doing business in China. However, Diageo should not forgo such a large market either, the company should observe the economic, political, and culture environments in China closely for a longer period of time. If China continues improving its market under WTO’s influences, then Diageo can enter with more confidence.

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4. “Country Report China, Mongolia? The Economist Intelligence Unite, London The Unit, 001.

5. Daykin, Tom, “Flavored Malt Beverages Swamp Market? Journal Sentinel Online, http//www.jsonline.com/bym/news/nov0/66.asp, November, 00.

6. Diageo PLC Annual Reports, 1-001.

7. Diageo PLC Web Site, http//www.diageo.com, August 15, 00.

8. Dixon, John, “Entering the Chinese Market the Risk and Discounted Rewards? Connecticut Quorum, 18.

. “EU-China Business Co-operation Opportunities o the Beverage and Food Industry? http//europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/projects/asia-invest/download00/mpm46_chinaexecutivesummary.pdf, May, 000

10. Hoovers.com Diageo PLC ?August 14, 00

11. Hu, Zuliu, “Why Is China Growing So Fast? International Monetary Fund Web Site, http//www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/doctext.cfm?docno=WPIEA07516, August 15, 00

1. Luo, Yadong, “How to Enter China ?Choices and Lessons? Ann Arbor The University of Michigan Press, 000.

1. “The Prospect of Chinese Alcohol Industry? Asianinfo Daily China News, March 6, 00.

14. Sullivan, Jeremiah J., “Exploring International Business Environment nd ed.? Boston Pearson Custom Publishing, 00.

15. Sullivan, Jeremiah J., “IBUS 00 Website? httpfaculty.washington.edu/jerrys/ibus/ibus.html, August 14, 00.

16. World Bank, World Development Indicators, 00

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