Saturday, October 29, 2011

King Lear

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Discuss a significant sequence from King Lear with close reference to language and staging


Act One Scene One


In the opening scene of the play the reader is immediately shown that Lear is beginning to make mistakes that will eventually ensure his downfall. In this scene it is obvious that Lear holds the power, shown in the manner in which he addresses the other characters in the scene. He gives orders and makes decisions.


The play begins with Lear announcing his intention to abdicate from the throne of England and divide his kingdom between his three daughters as a form of reward in exchange for their declaration of love for him.


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“Tell me my daughters


(Since now we will invest us both of rule, Interest of territory, cares of state)


Which of you shall we say doth love us most?


That we our largest bounty may extend


Where nature doth with merit challenge”


Lear is used to the flattery that comes with being king and he fails to recognize the hypocrisy of Gonerill and Regan’s professions of love. Gonerill and Regan seek to outdo each other in their declarations of love for their father. Cordelia refuses to flatter Lear with professions of her love, instead telling Lear that she loves him as a daughter should love a father. “I love your Majesty according to my bond, no more nor less”


Lear is enraged and cannot see what these words really mean. He is fooled by Gonerill and Regan’s insincere declarations of love. He disinherits Cordelia, “we have no such daughter, nor shall ever see that face of hers again.”


In Richard Eyre’s production of Lear, Lear is elevated onto the table as his anger towards Cordelia increases. This highlights his status as King and elevates him to a higher position of authority over Cordelia. Lear is clearly the dominant and most powerful figure in this scene. He speaks in a loud tone of voice, shouting as he disowns Cordelia and banishes her from the kingdom.


The camera focuses primarily on Lear during this scene, with brief camera shots of Cordelia highlighting her feelings and emotions through facial expressions. This again reinforces the idea that Lear is the dominant figure in the scene.


Lear’s servant Kent seeks to reason with Lear. He urges Lear to “See better.” Lear’s response highlights his lack of vision and poor foresight. He banishes Kent as he did Cordelia. This introduces another theme of the play, the lack of sight by characters and the blindness to the truth and to reality that they seem to exhibit. This is a recurring theme throughout the play which reinforces the idea that life must be looked at clearly and seen truthfully.


Shakespeare uses antithesis as an instrument of irony; Lear misinterprets or falsely views what is valuable, sane, natural and loyal.


The poetic language used by Lear in this scene reinforces the image of an all powerful king, who is possessive, egotistical and arrogant, used to giving orders and being obeyed. This is shown when Lear is informing Gonerill and Regan of his living arrangements. “Our self by monthly course, with reservation of a hundred knights, By you to be sustained, shall our abode make with you by due term.”


This scene introduces a major theme of the play; a lack of insight that leads to a character’s demise. Lear is unable to see into other people’s characters, so cannot see what they really are. Lear is fooled by Gonerill and Regan into thinking that they love him because he lacks the insight to be able to see into their characters. He sees only what is on the surface and cannot understand the deeper intentions behind his daughters’ speeches.


As Lear’s anger grows his foresight diminishes. He cannot look to the future to see the impact and consequences of his decisions and actions and he becomes increasingly rash and narrow-minded.


At the close of the scene Gonerill and Regan are seen to be plotting against their father, to minimise any attempt by Lear to retain authority. At this point of the play their actions do not appear to be cruel or devious, their father has acted irrationally in his treatment of Kent and Cordelia and they are concerned that he may act in such a way again.


It would have been apparent to the audience in Shakespeare’s time that Lear had committed a terrible sin by abdicating his throne, thus disrupting the natural order of society and breaking the Great Chain of Being, which states that a king must not challenge the authority given to him by God. The disorder and chaos that followed would have seemed inevitable to an audience of the time.





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Friday, October 28, 2011

ETHICS AND EDUCATION

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The study of ethics is essential for a good education for various reasons. In this essay, I will discuss those reasons in detail and provide examples. For one, it teaches students to become better individuals by teaching them to abide by societys rules and regulations. It also teaches students to lead by example and be better leaders. Most important of all, It also helps students deal with conflicts in the present and future.


When stating that the study of ethics teaches students to become better individuals by teaching them to abide by societys rules, I am referring to the fact that if students are given lessons in good morals and ethics, they will most likely be good citizens of society as well. If they are not given a good lesson in ethics and morality, they may have problems dealing with rules and regulations that society sets forth for all individuals. They may end up in trouble with the law and will become societys outcasts.


Teaching ethics to students also enables them to be good examples to others. Other children and youths will see that these particular students are honorable and have decent morals. Those that see this may be influenced to act in the same positive manner. The students that are taught ethics will benefit educationally as well because they will learn skills and tactic to be better future leaders. This goes back to the idea of the domino effect and will make for a better society.


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Finally, it also helps students deal with current and future conflicts that may arise in their lives. If they are taught a good lesson in ethics, students will be able to deal with and overcome many obstacles that stand in the way of their educational and personal goals. They will learn to not give up easily and that difficulties can be overcome. Not only will they learn to deal with these kinds of conflicts, but they will be better apt at handling physical conflicts as well.


The students may hold back from being physically involved in a conflict that may jeopardize their scholastic goals and their health as well. This is a very important point because too many individuals in the world today have not achieved their goals because of their inability to take control of their emotions. All in all, the study of ethics is essential not only for a good education, but for better life skills as well.











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shoplifting

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Shoplifting is the stage of adolescence where sometimes there are things that people do that are less than admirable. In my case I made a mistake that I later payed the consequences for and learned from my mistake. It was a beautiful sunny day at the very end of the of my sophmore year in high school. I had intentions to go into the Bealls store and take advantage of their sales items. Yes, I knew it was wrong. I dont know what made me do it. For me to do something like that is just not me. But I later realized I had done it for the excitement in being able to do something terribly wrong and getting away with it. I never would have thought I would get caught. Shoplifting effects everyone, yourself and the everyone in the local neighborhood. In this essay I`m going to explain some of the circumstances of stealing from local stores, or from anywhere.


Today shoplifting is one of the most common forms of theft in the United States. Shoplifting is now the number one cause for smaller stores to fail in today`s market. The reason shoplifting has become so big is because the thieves some how justify their actions and they also don`t consider themselves thieves. Many different kinds of people shoplift. Shoplifting can influence a few different areas. These areas include the consumer, the storeowner, and also our economy. Not all shoplifters are the same. There are also many ways to help prevent shoplifting and I failed to think about the consequences of my actions. Everyone around you is effected when you shoplift. Its embarrassing, you lose trust from your parents, your family, your friends, your teachers. It also gives you a reputation. People remember you.







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Please note that this sample paper on shoplifting is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on shoplifting, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on shoplifting will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Wednesday, October 26, 2011

capital punishment

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Capital Punishment


The question of whether capital punishment should be re introduced into Australia or not is a very touchy subject that everyone has his or her own opinion on. There are a lot of different aspects to take into consideration when looking at capital punishment and both sides of the argument can be very persuasive therefore its very easy to be swayed one way or the other. In my opinion I do not believe that capital punishment is justifiable no matter the cause.


I personally can not justify killing someone though it has been a common practice for many years and has taken place in almost every part of the world the need to rise above this primitivist method is stronger then ever.


Biblical views, the probability of loosing an innocent life and the psychological effect it has on society all have a bearing on why I have the opinion that I do.


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There are many arguments that one can make regarding capital punishment both for or against but it’s a topic that needs to be addressed and discussed with urgency because its relevant to everyone.


Therefore under no circumstances can this subject be taken lightly at the end of the day a human life may be what hangs in the balance.


The bible has a major affect on why I think capital punishment should be kept abolished. The bible is a very difficult text to understand as peoples interpretations can vary and the scriptures from Old Testament to New Testament are constantly contradicting one another though I think its still possible for one to gain understanding of what Gods actual view on capital punishment is. In the old testament scripture does say “an eye for an eye a tooth for a tooth” these teachings have been given a new light under the New Testament were Jesus says “ you have heard it said before an eye for an eye a tooth for a tooth but now I tell you if a man slaps you on the left cheek give him the other cheek also”. Based on those scriptures I would say that the scriptures in the Old Testament aren’t to be taken literally. Its understandable that society in general and especially those who are not Christian that they would find this is a much harder approach to deal with but one I believe to be right.


I find it hard to justify taking the life of another human being even if they have killed many people, by killing we are just as bad as them. Criminals are looked down at with such disgust because of the crimes they have committed surly if we look at them as scum for taking a human life then we should look at ourselves in the same way because capital punishment, in its most basic form is taking away a human life also.


In Genesis 6 it speaks of how God made man in his image by killing any man we are showing disrespect and disregard for God’s creation.


It is easy to understand why other people would not agree with this because after all the criminal did something to deserve death, were as the victim was innocent. Though in God’s eyes all sins are viewed in the same way and in John 75-811 it says let he who is without sin cast the first stone. No one is without sin therefore no one has the right to be taking another life. The bottom line is at the end of the day we should want to rehabilitate these people, give them a second chance. We must look at the difference between justice, where we give the criminal what they deserve and revenge, where we simply act based on out emotions.


Strong emotions can bring about a want for a killer to die so that we can feel like justice has been served but what if we make a mistake? This is another reason I believe capital punishment should be left out of our justice system is because the margin of error is too big and the chances of us executing someone that isn’t guilty is too big to risk. In the past we have heard countless incidents where convicted murders have been later found innocent and have been pardoned from their sentence however it is not possible to pardon a corpse.


There have been too many incident’s where people have been killed unjustly we can not take that lightly if by some unlucky chance you became the one sitting on death row knowing that you were innocent of the crime against you I imagine yours views would change somewhat.


In a study published in 187 it showed that between 100 and 185 approximately 50 people were innocent of the crime against them crimes that would have sentenced them to death. 1 of those people were sentenced to death an were executed.


There are already too many cracks in the justice system and with statistics showing that minority groups mainly blacks have a much bigger chance of being convicted of a crime then the average person the death penalty is too final. I think a life is very fragile and I don’t believe that the decision of whether someone should live or die should be left up to people because I don’t believe we have the right nor the capacity to make such a decision.


Again its easy to understand why others would say that killing someone who may not have been guilty here or there is a small price to pay for an overall safer society but this price is much bigger then we realise, sure we may have killed many more criminals who were guilty but what do we do to make up for those who weren’t? We can’t and it is for that exact reason that capital punishment is a measure to extreme for us to play with. The margin of error how ever big or small is too big to risk because the cost could be and innocent human.


Lastly whether we want to admit it or not capital punishment has an effect on society what kind of lessons are we teaching the younger generations when we say that there is nothing wrong with killing someone if they have already killed.


Rather then developing as a society were basically moving backwards and continuing one of the most primitive practices known to man, instead we should be moving forwards and taking a new look on things re-evaluating the morals that society bases itself on and trying to improve the justice and criminal system.


By now we should have learnt through past experiences that this sort of mentality affects everyone and leaves everyone worse off it de-sensitises us, stealing our compassion and regard for human life. Capital punishment lowers the human value of life, it brutalizes society showing them that revenge is completely justifiable and it violates our belief in the human capacity to change its ways. Capital punishment underlyingly reinforces the notion that killing is the proper response for those who have wronged us, its too naive of us to think that a healthy and safe society can come from such distorted thinking if we think this way about such delicate issues were more then likely to take this approach in every aspect of our lives.


Capital punishment is a subject that could be argued either way for days, months and years as it has been argued since its introduction millenniums ago. Though it still hasn’t been resolved and is not likely to be for a long time to come I think its good that the topic be raised even if we just create dialogue and discuss the situation I believe its healthy for our society.


Capital punishment is one of those things everyone feels strongly about and if its possible to encourage people to look at all the negativity it produces I think only positive outcomes can result.


We really need to just look at all the factors that contribute to capital punishment and argue all cases so that everyone can begin to think outside the squares we live in and realise that these subjects not only open minds and change ideas but also give people a new perspective on an issue they may once have thought differently about.





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Tuesday, October 25, 2011

The Diary of Anne Frank

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„h The play, which I̱ve read, is called The Diary of Anne Frank.


„h It is a play about 8 Jewish people hiding out in an attic during the Holocaust.


„h When the Nazis first went into power, Anne and her Jewish friends were not allowed do a lot of thing like biking, riding on a street-car or automobile, going to the movies etc.


„h Later, as things got even worst, the Frank went into hiding with another family, the van Daans and were hiding in the top floor of a warehouse where Mr. Frank used to work.


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„h Few months later, another Jew, Mr. Dussel, a dentist joined the two families in the attic because the Green Police was after him.


„h These eight human beings kept completely quiet during ten hours of the day when strangers were working in the warehouse below them and only moved about at night.


„h They couldṉt stand by a window in daylight where someone might spot them, couldṉt throw trash away that might arouse suspicion, and couldṉt use the water and washroom until all the workers below them in the warehouse has left.


„h The van Daans has a son. His name is Peter. He is years older than Anne is.


„h He is shy, awkward and rarely likes to talk.


„h This monologue is of Anne talking in her room. She reveals of her feels about Peter and what she thought of him before and what she thinks of him now after their meeting in Peteṟs room.





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The Good Life – Bertrand Russell

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The Good Life � Bertrand Russell


A Precis


Russell believes “the good life is one inspired by love and guided by knowledge”.


Knowledge leads us to benefit those we love while love leads intelligent people to seek knowledge, so love and knowledge are interconnected. Love is divided into two poles pure delight in contemplation which is love for those you care about and pure benevolence which is helping others without any element of aesthetic delight. Love at its fullest is an indissoluble combination of the two elements, delight and well-wishing. If one of these elements is without the other, there is no longer love. We desire affection in order to escape from the feeling of loneliness, in order to be, as we say, “understood.” We ought to attempt to have the compounded delight of benevolence and understanding towards all the sentient beings whom we encounter. However, benevolence has its limits, hence in all descriptions of the good life here on earth we must assume a certain basis of animal vitality and animal instinct; without this, life becomes docile and boring. Delight, the most emphasized element in the best love, is unavoidably selective and prevents us from having the same feelings toward all mankind. Knowledge is another ingredient in the good life. There is no such thing as ethnical knowledge but only scientific knowledge and particular facts because ethnical notations only influence desire. They do this through the desire for approval and the fear of disapproval. Since all behaviour springs from desire, more desires will be satisfied when there is more love and more knowledge therefore living the Good Life.


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Monday, October 24, 2011

Metaphors in the "I have a Dream" Speach

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The Power of Metaphors


Two scores ago, in the heart of the United State’s capital, a gathering formed near the feet of the author of the Emancipation Proclamation. Just as Lincoln did in his time, another man was raised during the time of the early sixties to lead the civil rights movement. The speech given by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was less than seventeen hundred words, however, the truths that were said, the feelings that were provoked and the power of Dr. King’s voice will forever resonate through out all generations of time to come. In his powerful speech, Dr. King used descriptive metaphors to help convey the needed changes and goals for America in those early stages of the equal rights movement.


The crowd that gathered that humid august day all became a part of history. Large majority of the gathering were African-Americans, however there were people of other ethnic backgrounds present that day, for the message given by Dr. King was for all people united in brotherhood and sisterhood. Dr. King addressed this diversified group in a manner that all would be able to understand coming from different backgrounds. His choice in using descriptive metaphors and analogies gave way to a persuasive speech to help further the needed changes in the United States.


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Dr. King’s use of metaphors proved to be a useful tool to speak to this large group. Several biblical references were made to relate the struggle of equal rights using such words and phrases as “exalted” and “the cup of bitterness”. The people listening to Dr. King were God fearing people that held such beliefs sacred, which ultimately helped relate the message of Dr. King to this group. This proved to be very effective to ignite feelings of the necessity of being treated equal as we are “all God’s children”.


Dr. King not only used metaphors in a biblical sense, but also in a patriotic sense. Such metaphors were given to arouse the sense of patriotism and the fact that “all men are created equal”. Such example is the analogy given near the beginning of the speech of a “promissory note to which every American was to fall heir.” His descriptive words painted the canvas that all humans have the right to be free and pursue happiness, noting that there are struggles, but continue to fight, as stated by using the metaphor of “[refusing] to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt.” Such patriotic metaphors gave people the courage and belief that one day, all would be treated equal as citizens of the United States of America, regardless of race, color or gender.


The “I Have a Dream” speech will forever be studied and analyzed and considered as one of the most important speeches of America’s history. The speech was simple, yet very profound, having lasting effects on all generations. The metaphors used in the address helped Dr. King convey the message that needed to be given. Also, the use of metaphors helped the people of that time, and present time, understand the importance of equal rights.





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Sunday, October 23, 2011

The Role of Police Today

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Jenny Elliott


The Role of Police Today


Law enforcement and the role of police officers has evolved and changed since


the first police department was created in Boston in 188. Today law enforcement is


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divided into four categories. Officers within the Federal, State, County, and Local police


agencies have separate roles that, when put together, make up all aspects of law


enforcement as we know it today.





The Federal government has many law enforcement agencies that are designed to


protect the rights and privileges of the United States. These agencies have jurisdiction


within the entire nation. The Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI, is headed by the


Attorney General. The FBI enforces all federal laws, represents the United States when it


becomes subject to court action, and conducts independent investigations through its law


enforcement agencies. The Drug Enforcement Agencies, or DEA, enforce federal drug


control laws, and the United States Treasury Department is made up of agencies such as


the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the Internal Revenue Service, the


Customs Service, and the Secret Service.





There are about twenty-three State police agencies. The State police have the


same police powers as city police and have jurisdiction anywhere between the boundaries


and borders of the state. The role of the State police includes but is not limited to law


enforcement, highway safety, and maintaining training academies and crime labs.





The Sheriff is the elected senior officer of the County police departments. The


duties of County police include law enforcement, serving court orders, operating the


county jail, and investigating crimes. Like their title suggests, their jurisdiction ranges


throughout the county.


Local, or city, police departments range in size from 1 to over 0,000. Regardless


of the size of the department, city police are responsible for traffic enforcement, accident


investigation, patrol, property and violent crime investigation, narcotics and vice control,


homicide investigation, and search and rescue. Studies of police work show that a large


amount of an officer’s time is spent handling minor disturbances, service calls, and


administrative duties. The roles and responsibilities of the city police are the broadest


and their jurisdiction is the smallest.





In my own theory, there are many branches (or agencies) of the “law enforcement


tree.” Each branch has limbs (departments). Each has specific roles and duties they are


responsible for. All the agencies and departments together make up the law enforcement


system in which we so greatly depend on.





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Witholding decisions

If you order your essay from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Witholding decisions. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Witholding decisions paper right on time.
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Political leaders take a lot of important decision regarding the country and citizens. A democratic form of government allows the citizens to know what decision is being taken. But, there are times when the government should withhold a decision for a certain amount of time to prevent conflicts and to safeguard the interest of the public.


A decision has its own importance at a particular time and in a given scenario.


You never know what section of people will take a sigh of relief from it and what section would not like the slightest idea of it. The task of informing the people about a decision should be kept in abeyance under circumstances such as


When each and every issue of decision has not been attended to


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When it involves the sentiments of public


When it involves a top secret mission within or outside the country


Well , the list can be endless. In a country like America where people from every nook and corner of the World comes to live their life , there can be some political decisions involving the sentiments of a particular race. It is better to withhold such a decision from them unless they are very clear and certain about it.


When the decision has not taken a shape it can be misinterpreted by people and thus can be moulded into something that can encourage conflicts.


There are situations when the government has to take a decision in a very short span of time , those decision should be withheld until they are implemented as the public is not prepared and it might come as a shock to them.





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Saturday, October 22, 2011

An Outpost of Progress

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Joseph Conrad Tales of Unrest “An Outpost of Progress”


Inhalt


1. Zur Person Joseph Conrad ........................


. Scheitern der Zivilisation? ........................


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. Bibliographie .............................................6


1. Zur Person Joseph Conrad


Joseph Conrad, der eigentlich Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski hieß, wurde am .1.1857 in Berdichev bei Kiew geboren. Mit 17 Jahren ging er nach Marseille, um Seemann zu werden. In den folgenden Jahren war er Matrose auf französischen und englischen Handelsschiffen und erwarb 1886 das Kapitänspatent. Im selben Jahr nahm er die englische Staatsbürgerschaft an. 184 beendete er seine Laufbahn als Seefahrer und veröffentlichte 185 seinen ersten Roman Almayer�s Folly A Story of an Eastern River. 188 Veröffentlichung der Tales of Unrest. Am .August 14 starb Joseph Conrad an einer Herzattacke.


. Scheitern der Zivilisation?


Da Joseph Conrad als Seefahrer selbst die Kolonialisierung miterlebt hat und unter Berücksichtigung der Zeitgeschichtlichen Gegebenheiten ist die Frage bedeutsam, ob das Scheitern der Handelsagenten als Kritik an der Kolonialisierung gesehen werden kann.


Zu Beginn sind Kayerts und Carlier, die beiden Handelsagenten, deren Namen auf eine belgische Herkunft schließen lassen, zufrieden mit ihrer Situation. Sie wollen sich ein ruhiges Leben auf der Handelsstation machen. “We shall let life run easily here!“ (Conrad 5)


Dann kommen ihnen die ersten Zweifel an ihrer Entscheidung, sie rechtfertigen diese mit Begebenheiten, auf die sie keinen Einfluss gehabt haben.


Kayerts erklärt, dass er nur wegen seiner Tochter aus der Telegraphengesellschaft ausgeschieden ist, da er nur diese Möglichkeit sah eine Mitgift für sie zu verdienen. “If it was not for my Melie, you wouldn’t catch me here.” (Conrad 60)


Carlier, der, nachdem er aus der Kavallerie entlassen wurde, von seiner Familie verstoßen wurde, war ebenfalls nicht völlig freiwillig in den Dienst der Kongo Gesellschaft getreten.


“If I had a decent brother-in-law,” Carlier would remark, �a fellow with a heart, I would not be here.” (Conrad 60)


Conrad macht hier deutlich, dass die Handelsagenten nur die ausführenden Organe eines großen Ganzen sind und sich nicht aus Überzeugung haben anwerben lassen.


Die Handelsagenten leben in ihrer eigenen kleinen Zivilisation, die nur aus ihnen selbst besteht. Conrad weist schon zu Beginn sehr direkt daraufhin, dass die beiden Handelsagenten nicht fähig sind, in dieser für sie fremden Umgebung zu existieren.


“They were two perfectly insignificant and incapable individuals, whose existence is only rendered possible through the high organization of civilized crowds.”


(Conrad 58)


Kontakt haben sie nur zu Makola, der die Führung des Lagerhauses inne hat und Gobila, dem Häuptling, der an die Handelsstation angrenzenden Dörfer. Sie haben eine sehr eingeschränkte Wahrnehmung, die sich nur auf das bezieht was sie wahrnehmen wollen. Ihre eigene, mitgebrachte, von ihnen hochgeschätzte Zivilisation, deren Verbreitung sie als ihr vornehmliches Ziel ansehen. Conrad findet dafür eine sehr passende Beschreibung


“They lived like blind men in a large room, […]” (Conrad 61)


Kayerts und Carlier bringen kein Verständnis für diese ihnen ungewohnte und neue Umgebung auf. Es ist ihnen nicht möglich, Zusammenhänge und Dinge, die ihnen nicht aus der Zivilisation bekannt sind, zu erfassen und zu bewerten. “[…] unable to see the general aspect of things.” (Conrad 61)


Als Fremde auf das Handelsgelände kommen, sich mit Makola unterhalten, Kayerts und Carlier jedoch nicht verstehen, welche Sprache sie sprechen und woher sie kommen, wird ihnen das Ungewöhnliche zum ersten Mal bedrohlich. Es wird ihnen bewusst, dass sie am Ende der (zivilisierten-) Welt auf sich allein gestellt sind und niemand ihnen helfen kann.


“They both, for the first time, became aware that they lived in conditions where the unusual may be dangerous, and that there was no power on earth outside of themselves to stand between them and the unusual” (Conrad 65)


Makola unterbreitet Kayerts ein Angebot, dass er eine Möglichkeit wüsste von den Fremden Elfenbein zu kaufen. Zu Anfang zögert Kayerts, lässt sich dann aber von Makola dazu bewegen, dem Handel zuzustimmen, als dieser ausführlich darstellt, dass es nur im Interesse der Handelsstation sein kann, diesen Handel zu vollziehen.


Am nächsten Tag zeigt Makola Kayerts das Elfenbein, dass er für die Arbeiter bekommen hat, die er den Sklavenhändlern verkauft hat. Makola versteht es perfekt dieses nicht direkt und offen zu erklären. Er erklärt nur, dass es kein regulärer Handel war. “�No regular trade,� said Makola.” (Conrad 70)


Kayerts brüskiert sich über den Handel, was von Makola mit seiner gewohnten Gelassenheit beantwortet wird.


“�You very red, Mr Kayerts. If you are so irritable in the sun, you will get fever and die � like the first chief!�” (Conrad 70)


Conrad setzt diese Szene in einen ironischen Rahmen, was die Hilflosigkeit von Kayerts deutlich macht. Einerseits fühlt er sich als zivilisierter Mensch, und als solcher verurteilt er den Sklavenhandel, andererseits hatte er dem Sklavenhandel zugestimmt. Es kommt zu einer Divergenz zwischen den inneren und äußeren Vorgängen bei den Handelsagenten. Kayerts und Carlier verurteilen den Sklavenhandel, kommen aber schließlich zu der Übereinkunft das sie dazu verpflichtet sind im Sinne der Handelsstation das Elfenbein in Besitz zu nehmen. Der Direktor soll dann darüber entscheiden, ob es rechtens war oder nicht. Sie selbst sehen sich nicht in der Lage, diese Entscheidung zu treffen, da sie einerseits an ihre Zivilisation glauben, die allerdings nur aus Fiktionen besteht, und gleichzeitig mit der Realität konfrontiert sind, in der es brutal zugeht. Conrad macht hier sehr deutlich, dass die Kolonisation nichts mit der heilen zivilisatorischen Sichtweise der Handelsagenten zu tun hat, sondern sich auch dem Sklavenhandel und anderer brutaler Vorgehensweisen bedient.


Es vergehen Wochen und Monate, sie bekommen keinen Besuch von Gobila und seinen Leuten, das Dampfschiff verspätet sich von Tag zu Tag. Conrad beschreibt sehr eindringlich die Situation der Handelsagenten und ihrer immer größer werdenden inneren Spannungen.


“That was the root of the trouble! There was nobody there and being left there alone with their weakness, they became daily more like a pair of accomplices than like a couple of devoted friends.” (Conrad 74)


Kayerts und Carlier fühlen sich einsam und auf sich selbst gestellt. Jeden Abend reden sie sich ein, dass am nächsten Tag das Dampfschiff kommen wird. Schließlich kommt es zum Streit zwischen den beiden Handelsagenten, in dessen Folge Carlier erschossen wird. Conrad treibt hier die Verdeutlichung der Sinnlosigkeit der Tätigkeiten der Handelsagenten auf die Spitze. Er lässt einen seiner Protagonisten durch eine Kugel aus einer Pistole, die von dem anderen Protagonisten abgefeuert wird, sterben. Die Zivilisation löscht sich selbst aus, es bedarf nicht einmal einer Einwirkung von außen.


Kayerts bleibt mit der Last, ein Sklavenhändler und Mörder zu sein, zurück. Er hadert mit seinem Schicksal. In diesem Moment trifft das Dampfschiff der “ Great Civilizing Company“ (Conrad 80) ein. Kayerts setzt genau in diesem Augenblick des lang ersehnten Ankommens des Dampfschiffes seinem Leben ein Ende. Conrad erklärt die Gründe für diesen Schritt nicht näher. Es ist nicht genau nachvollziehbar, warum Kayerts gerade in diesem Moment, wo er alles überstanden hat, seinem Leben ein Ende setzt. Conrad gestaltet das Ende sehr ironisch, indem Kayerts seinem Direktor die geschwollene Zunge entgegen streckt. Kayerts zeigt damit das er durchschaut hat, was der zivilisatorische Fortschritt in Wirklichkeit bedeutet.


“And, irreverently, he was putting out a swollen tongue at his Managing Director.“ (Conrad 81)


Conrad äußert sich in “An Outpost of Progress“ sehr kritisch gegenüber der Kolonialisierung und dem vermeintlichen verbreiten des Fortschritts. Er macht deutlich, dass es eigentlich nur um wirtschaftliche Interessen der Handelsgesellschaften geht, denen auch das Wohl ihrer eigenen Angestellten nicht wichtig erscheint. Conrad akzentuiert eine deutliche Kritik an der Kolonisation und deren Auswirkungen, sowohl derer die Kolonisation betreffenden als auch derer, die an der Ausführung der Kolonisation beteiligt sind.


. Bibliographie


Conrad, Joseph. “An Outpost of Progress” The Penguin Book of English Short Stories.


Ed. Christopher Dolley. London Penguin, 16. 56-80.


Curle, Richard. Joseph Conrad A Study. New York Russell & Russell, 168.


Reitz, Bernhard. “Joseph Conrad An Outpost of Progress” Interpretationen Englische Short


Stories von Thomas Hardy bis Graham Swift. Ed. Raimund Borgmeier. Stuttgart Reclam, 1. 0-4.


Stape, J.H., ed. The Cambridge Companion To Joseph Conrad. Cambridge Cambridge


University Press, 16.





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Friday, October 21, 2011

Memory in "Mean Time"

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Discuss ways in which memory is explored


“Mean time” is, in essence, a collection of poems concerned with history and memory throughout the anthology. Carol Ann Duffy uses many literary and thematic devices to explore the theme of memory such as the dramatic monologue which enables the socialisation of self who can then speak without the fear of censorship; objectivity of viewpoints. It provides disassociation for the poet from the persona in which they are speaking thus making the poetry more universal and accessible, especially due to the different personas that Carol Ann Duffy adopts. These enable her to her to incite different times of life from which memories are, for example, Captain of the 164 team” for childhood to “Adultery” for the pinnacle of adulthood and as the anthology progresses, the poetry becomes darker and less idealistic. The language highlights this; “star spangled and burst like a red balloon” to language of death throughout the later poetry. The difference of gendered and ungendered voices seems to re-negotiate the boundaries more acutely in love poetry between the lover and the beloved. Carol Ann Duffy uses personal memory with interwoven references to texts such as DH Lawrence’s “Humming Bird” in “Captain” which contexualise her poetry and add weight to its meaning.


A poem in which Duffy uses the device of evoking idealistic memory through childhood is in “Captain of the 164 Team”. She underwrites personal memories with external textual references, for example in the progression of language from babyhood to adulthood, which encapsulates the meaning of the poem itself. “Humming bird is likened to the DH Lawrence’s work of the same name citing that it is “Primeval dumb, far back” which intensifies the theme of memory.


Within the poems I am using to examine the question of memory in Mean Time, temporal progression is represented by the progression by stanza and word association in “Captain” and in “Moments of Grace” where they “look for the doing words” juxtaposed to “peeling an orange”. This temporal movement is important in the theme of memory and enhances the poems effectiveness in conveying memory through the sense of urgency or disappointment that it invokes.


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This is clearly illustrated in “Moments of Grace” where reflection is the force behind the poems effectiveness. Word association within it of “staggering” suggests disorientation further heightened by imbalanced lines and complex similes that Duffy uses to evoke remembrance. “Dusk” suggests an indistinct memory and a close to a light era juxtaposed to an italic “yes” where the voice of the present can interrupt the reverie of memory and sharpen it. The technical importance of the language is unequalled in other poems with Duffy citing verbs as the most imperative parts of poetry; verbs have the ability to further a theme as opposed to remaining static. This has the paradoxical effect of being an effective way of conveying the feeling of loss within life at never finding that “first love” by reduction of the actions to being uncontrolled by reason (they are based only in memory) in order to justify the reasoning. However, when “Moments of Grace is compared to “first love” it appears weaker at conveying the exploration of memory due to the preoccupation with the reduction in the penultimate verse whereas in First Love the themes are consistent and based on emotion which the reader can freely empathise with as it leaves room to project one’s own memory within an acceptable framework.


First love is one of the most effective poems in terms of relating memory as it talks, not just of love but also of the impact that it has upon one, thus by contrast emphasising the theme of love and memory within it. The evocative mood is created by the rhythm and equality of the stanzas showing a balanced remembrance rather than a disjointed justification of pain in adulthood, which is what is seen in both “Captain of the 164 Team” and “Moments of Grace”. The intimacy of the language “close to my lips as lipstick” introduces an almost voyeuristic element into the poem; a theme that continues in the first and last stanza, pierced by a retrospective past in stanza two. The power of memory is explored in through light which can be seen in Mean Time, suggesting revelation while evoking the past in terms of theological happening in the juxtaposition of light to dark, increasing its intensity and the innocence of what it stands for.


“Such faithfulness” in the last stanza compared to a star which returns the reader to the power of loss, although this is later challenged by “unseen flowers suddenly pierce and sweeten “. This invisible scent is reminiscent of memory and the dual pleasure and pain that it invokes. The supernaturalism and invisibility of this is epitomised in “Moments of Grace” where the present haunts the past. This adds an element of fear and the inability to understand the importance and the ideals that memory contains. In “Captain of the 164 Team” Duffy allows only a simplified memory to be remembered, perhaps due to the fear of reality seen briefly at the end of the poem by which past and present are measured,


Fear is present as a judge of memory in Mean Time, the last poem to be examined in the light of memory. This poem is unique in charting absolute loss, epitomised in the title itself and the language used throughout. “Unmeasurable rain” also evokes pathetic fallacy to exacerbate the feeling of loss for the poet and her audience. “I felt my heart gnaw,” suggests her insecurity and impotence at expressing through words how she actually feels. The animal allusion by association reverts humankind to animals capable of intense feeling while being unable to articulate precisely what is felt. There is movement through Mean Time is “darkening sky” and the references to future “but we will be dead”, unique to Mean Time as the anticipation of the only certainty in life adds gravity and resignation to the tone and shows the power of memory exacerbated in “endless nights”.


Mean Time is an appropriate poem to end the chartered journey of memory throughout the anthology as especially each poem that I have chosen to look at examines a particular part of Carol Ann Duffy’s, and indeed of the audience’s life. The progression from “Captain of the 164 Team ‘s “Do Wah Diddy through “First Love, Moments of Grace and Mean Time all represent an important parts of life and experience which memory is vitally important in reliving and indeed making the present slightly more bearable. Memory is a focus for each individual poem and while Carol Ann Duffy uses language persona and form to illustrate each one’s individuality, memory links each one through its fundamental importance within the collection.





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Steps to kill yourself

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Time 5 Hours (All time indications throughout the syllabus are for on-ground students.)


1. Review the objectives from Week One, and discuss additional insights and questions that may have arisen.


. Little, Brown Search Activity


Have each team member participate in the search. Search for the following information in the text, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook. Also prepare a one-page, typed list showing the page numbers in The Little, Brown Compact Handbook where the following information can be found


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a. Using the University of Phoenix Virtual Writing Lab;


b. Developing a thesis statement;


c. Making your writing more concise;


d. Key elements of a paper that is written as an argument;


e. Structuring an introduction for an essay that you are developing;


f. Developing a research question or hypothesis;


g. Conducting a keyword electronic search;


h. Using transitional expressions to help your writing flow;


i. Formatting the first page of your academic paper;


j. Uses of the semicolon and the colon;


k. Documenting a source in the text of your paper;


l. Documenting a source in the text of your paper when you are quoting someone else;


m. Key points to look for when editing a paper;


n. Preparing a citation at the end of your paper for a journal article you retrieved from the University of Phoenix Library Online Collection; and


o. Editing symbols your instructor may use when marking your papers;


. Outline of the Team Presentation on an Adult Learning Skill


a. Discuss and choose a topic for the Learning Team Paper and Presentation on an Adult Learning Skill due in Workshops Four and Five. The topic may be any adult learning skill, such as time management, study skills, or stress management.


b. Create an outline for the Learning Team Presentation in Workshop Five.


These assignments are due in Workshop Two.


Week Two


Adult Learning


• Analyze and identify personal learning styles.


Research Skills


• Utilize online search techniques.


Team Skills


• Recognize the team development process.


Written Communication Skills


• Identify the five steps of the writing process.


• Identify writing mechanics.


• Demonstrate an understanding of University of Phoenix resources (e.g., the Writing Lab).


ASSIGNMENTS


INDIVIDUAL


1. Read Chapters , 5, and 6 in the text, Peak Learning.


. Read Getting Started in the text, Tools for Teams.


. Read Goal Setting and Time Management in the text, Keys to Success, and review the application exercises at the end of the chapter.


All other assignments will be provided by instructors in the course-specific Course Syllabus, which will be given to you the first night of class.


Week Three


Critical Thinking Skills


• Identify and apply critical thinking skills.


Personal Management


• Analyze and identify time management skills.


• Analyze and identify stress management techniques.


• Analyze and identify useful study skills.


• Perform a realistic self-assessment and examine expectations.


Research Skills


• Demonstrate an understanding of the Internet and the University of Phoenix Library Online Collection.


• Demonstrate an understanding of standard library research.


• Explain the concept of plagiarism and how to avoid it.


• Apply organizational skills to the research process.


Team Skills


• Develop an understanding of ways to plan team projects.


Written Communication Skills


• Identify methods of citation and documentation.


ASSIGNMENTS


INDIVIDUAL


1. Read chapter 7 in the text Peak Learning.


. Read Critical and Creative Thinking in the text Keys to Success.


. Read Getting to Results in the text Tools for Teams.


All other assignments will be provided by instruct


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Thursday, October 20, 2011

War profit

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RATNO PROFITERSTVO





The short story Ratno Profiterstvo by Stjepan Mataušiæ cannot be fully understood without knowing the cultural and social background of war affected Croatia between the years 11-15. It is likely possible that the storys underlying ironic and humorous undertone will never reach its effect on a non native-croatian speaker.


Two main charackters are described in the story Ante, a primitive low-class worker and Vaso a true gentelmen of high rank. Antes main problem was that Vaso is of Serbian nationality. Moreover, Vaso was better educated, had a more comfortable flat, higher income and enjoyed more social prestige than Ante. Antes coarse manners can be seen in the following sentence ..Tako je, jednom prilikom , donio živu svinju na livadu pred zgradom i tamo ju vlastoruèno zaklao, ganjajuæi je po livadi sat- dva prije toga.


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As war broke out (between Serbia and Croatia) and people were looking for shelter finally settling in the basement of the building were Ante and Vaso lived, Ante couldnt stand the fact that he was sharing the same shelter with a Serb. ...Ante nije mogao podnijeti èinjenicu da dijeli sklonište sa Srbinom...


After loosing his job, Ante began to literally hate Vaso...Kako je Ante upravo tih dana izgubio posao, a vremena je imao na pretek, tako je i mržnja rasla...


Nikao nije mogao prihvatiti èinjenicu, da jedan Srbin može tako visoko biti rangiran u novoj hrvatskoj državi, kako može kupovati novi namještaj, kako može imati naklonost svih susjeda, dok on, Hrvat, Ante, èak ne može niti naæi posao..


Finally Ante knew how to make things play into his hands. He took advantage of the air-raids and with a couple of companions he drew to Vasos Apple Plantage stealing almost all apples from that plantage. Afterwards they sold them on the market. Having, each, 00 kunas in their pockets they went to a local pub and enjoyed the binge which lasted long into the night.


After coming home he went to bed thinking of himself being a great patriot, a Croatian hero who knocked a Serb down. He took revenge and felt contended...Vidio je sebe kao poštovanog i visokog èovjeka kojem dižu spomenik za njegove zasluge...





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Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Parole

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June 8, 00


Parole Agent


This is to report that, was accepted as a resident at Diamond Street Sober Living Program on Tuesday, June , 00 and has agreed to comply with the following conditions that include, but are not limited to


· Attendance of a minimum of three () Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous meetings per week.


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· Additional attendance of two () mandatory house meetings per week


· Maintain full-time employment.


· Have a sponsor and work the 1 steps.


· Submit to random drug and alcohol testing upon request, with results provided by Redwood Toxicology.


It is our hopes that we might be able to somehow work in cooperation with the courts, and together further promote Karye’s efforts to change her life and become a productive member of society.


Please feel free to contact either our resident manager or myself if you have any questions. It is our sincere desire to be of any support possible on Karye’s behalf.


Respectfully,


Program Director


June 8, 00


Parole Agent


This is to report that was accepted as a resident at Diamond Street Sober Living Program on Tuesday, June , 00 and has agreed to comply with the following conditions that include, but are not limited to


· Attendance of a minimum of three () Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous meetings per week.


· Additional attendance of two () mandatory house meetings per week


· Maintain full-time employment.


· Have a sponsor and work the 1 steps.


· Submit to random drug and alcohol testing upon request, with results provided by Redwood Toxicology.


It is our hopes that we might be able to somehow work in cooperation with the courts, and together further promote Karye’s efforts to change her life and become a productive member of society.


Please feel free to contact either our resident manager or myself if you have any questions. It is our sincere desire to be of any support possible on Karye’s behalf.


Respectfully,





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Biological vs Humanistic Theories

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Biological vs. Humanistic Theories


“It is the theory that decides what we can observe”-Albert Einstein (as cited in Moncur, 00, p. ). Psychology is based on theories, which are developed from observations. However, the same observation can bring about conflicting theories. Therefore, in order to understand personality, one must examine many different approaches. Humanistic theories follow the belief that everyone is basically good. It relies on feelings rather than thought processes. Biological theories follow that belief that genetics control personality. They rely on thinking rather than feelings. In order to achieve a thorough analysis between the biological and humanistic perspectives of personality, the basic concepts, theorists, and approaches to research must be compared.


The basic concepts of humanistic and biological theories differ greatly. There are four basic ideas behind humanistic psychology. First, the present is the most important aspect of a person. Humanists focus on the present rather than looking at the past or toward the future. Second, healthy people must take responsibility for themselves, regardless of the actions. Third, every individual possess inherent worth. Even negative actions do not negate the value of the person. Fourth, the achievement of personal growth and understanding is the goal of life. “Only through self-improvement and self-knowledge can one truly be happy” (Heffner, 00, p. 1). On the other hand, biological theories focus on thought rather than feelings for self-worth. First, biological theorists believe that genetic make-up determines a person’s personality. The basic concepts state that even if biology plays no direct role in personality, the way a person looks affects how one sees himself and how others interact with him. This indirect affect determines how a person develops into adulthood. Biological perspectives also teach that intelligence and genes determine a person’s personality. Temperament and mental disorders are also believed to be determined by biology (Myers, 1, p. 56). Humanistic theories seem to be oversimplified, whereas biological theories are overcomplicated. Although they are complete opposites in their concepts, together they comprise the essence of personality.


Not only do humanistic and biological theories differ, the theorists within each group also differ. Carl Rogers “pioneered humanistic psychotherapy and was the first therapist to popularize a ‘person-centered’ approach” (as cited in Burger, 00, p. 1). The main concept of Roger’s theory is that everyone strives for self-actualization, and seeks out enhancing experiences. Rogers developed the concept of the “fully functioning” person. He believed that people strive for an optimal sense of satisfaction, and becomes fully functioning. Once fully functioned, the individual is able to trust his own feelings and experience a better life. However, Roger realized that very few people become fully functional, thereby creating defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms allow people to protect their self-concept, thereby allowing them to continue to strive toward self-actualization (Heffner, 00, p. 11). Rogers believed that the need for defense mechanisms stems from childhood, where children are taught conditional positive regard. When parents disapprove of a child’s behavior, love is withheld. Therefore, children are taught to hide their faults and weaknesses rather than accept them. Roger has proposed that only through unconditional positive regard can individuals know that they are loved no matter what they do (Burger, 00, p. 1). Another humanistic theorist, Abraham Maslow, believes that each characteristic of human functioning relates to the whole person. Maslow refers to these functions as Hierarchy of Needs. There are five basic categories of human needs. The first level is the physiological needs, which includes food, water, shelter, oxygen, and sleep. Until these needs are met, it is impossible to move on to the next level. The second level is safety needs, which incorporates the need for safety and security. One must seek out safety through other people and strive to find a world that will protect them and keep them free from harm. One can only continue to grow by meeting these goals in order to think about higher-level needs. The third level is the belonging and love needs, which includes the need for love, acceptance, and belonging. Once the individual is feeling safe and secure in their world they will seek out friendships to feel a sense of belonging. This level focuses on one’s desire to be accepted, to fit in, and to feel like they belong. The fourth level is esteem needs, which includes the need for achievement, education, competence, and respect. At this level, one focuses energy on self-respect, respect from others, and feeling that accomplishments have been made. The final level is the need for self-actualization, which includes the need to realize our fullest potential. Maslow believes that while many people may be in this final level, very few master it (Burger, 00, p. 1). While both Rogers and Maslow believe in self-actualization and fully functional people, they differ regarding a person’s childhood. Rogers’ believed that a person’s childhood experiences could prevent self-actualization, whereas Maslow disregarded the role of a person’s childhood. Maslow believed that as long as a person’s needs are met, the person’s childhood experiences do not hinder self-actualization. One cannot negate the role of the biologic theorists, however. One of the leading biologic theorists, Hans Eysenck, concluded that all human traits can be divided into three distinct categories, known as Supertraits. The first is extroversion-introversion. Eysenck measured people’s personality by the activities and social behaviors and determined that these traits rarely change over time. The extrovert is active, needs to be around people, and requires a lot of stimulation, whereas the introvert is the opposite. Eysenck believed that most people fall in between the two, creating a balance. Too much or too little of extroversion or introversion could cause an instable personality. The second supertrait is neuroticism. Neuroticisms are the tendencies that a person has to respond emotionally to situations. Like the first, people who score too high or low in this category are not likely to have stable personalities. The final category is psychoticism. Psychoticism is a person’s response and reactions to others. People who score high in this category are said to require judicial correction or psychotherapy, as they have no regard for others and lack empathy. There are major differences between biologic theorists like Eysenck and humanistic theorists like Rogers and Maslow. Eysenck, like most biologic theorists, believe that personality traits are inherited, and therefore, unavoidable. These theorists believe that a combination of psychotherapy and drug therapy could correct poor personality traits, leading to a productive life. Humanistic therapists believe that a productive life is a self-actualized life, and can only be achieved through the meeting of needs. Humanistic therapists believe that poor personality traits are learned, not inherited. While humanistic theorists believe that people are basically good, biologic theorists tend to believe in the science behind temperaments.


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The approaches to research utilized in humanistic and biologic perspectives are vastly diverse. Humanistic theory has a much-reduced capacity for research. Using assessments and tests contradict the foundation of humanistic theory. However, after much research and development, Stephenson created the Q-Sort assessment, which was quickly adopted by Carl Rogers. The Q-Sort consists of 100 cards, each containing qualities within an individual’s personality. The client is instructed to place each of the cards on a nine-point continuum representing how he sees himself. This is done twice, representing the true and ideal self of the client. The healthy person is one whose ideal self and true self are very similar. While this test is helpful in determining a person’s self-concept, defense mechanisms may present an accurate assessment. Biological theory utilizes genetic research in developing theories. However, studies are done on environmental factors by studying twins and culture. This brings an almost humanistic approach into biological theory. DNA studies are now bringing a completely new research venue into biological theory. Yet humanistic theory is almost stagnant in research and development.


While humanistic and biological theories have many differences and fewer similarities, both theories try to address the issues of personality. A blend between the two theories would most likely produce the optimal results. Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, and Hans Eysenck spent years researching and developing their theories on personality. Each theorist makes an excellent argument, however each theorist has a narrowed view of personality. Personality is too complex to be put into a single category. We think what we feel, and feel what we think.





References


Burger, J. (00). Personality. Belmont, CA Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.


Heffner, C. (00). Personality synopsis. Retrieved June 0, 00 from the World Wide Web


http//www.allpsych.com.


Moncur, M. (00). Quotations page. Retrieved from the World Wide Web


http//www.quotationspage.com.


Myers, D. (1). Exploring psychology. New York, NY Worth Publishers.





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Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Gun Control

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You’re sitting in your living room talking to your mom and hear a gun shot. You run out hoping it’s not a loved one but sadly your brother or sister has just been shot. What do you do? Since the shootings at the schools have happened I have taken an interest for gun control. There’s so much violence out there that have guns involved and I want to stop that. There should be stricter regulations on the control of guns. To get my point across we have to see the history on guns, the laws an d how much violence there is because the use of guns. Sadly to say about half of all U.S. families own at least one gun.


Statistics show that each year in the United States guns kill more than 5,000 people, a death rate much higher than that in any other industrial nation. But many gun owners use their guns for protecting their home, hunting or target shooting, and collecting. This may be fine for some people, but what happens when it get out of hand? There has been thousands of incidents but here are a few that I read off of the internet from the gun control web page. In 1, there was a man named Pierre Lebrun who had a history of mental illness and difficulty at work. He killed three of his co-workers and himself with the use of a gun. And who can forget the Columbine incident that happened in 1. After that many high schools, junior highs, and even elementary have had shootings. These incidents could have been stopped if guns weren’t available in their homes. Why even have guns in your home? It only causes more violence. Guns kill.


Many have been shot and killed because we’re not taking gun control seriously. We have laws to help us aim to reduce the criminal use of guns as much as possible. There is a law called the Brady Bill, which gives people a harder chance in purchasing a gun. It allows people purchasing a gun to have a five-day waiting period before purchasing a gun for the law enforcement officials to make sure that the buyer is not prohibited from owning a gun. They check criminal backgrounds, mental illness, substance abuse with alcohol or drugs, history of violence, relationship breakdown and job loss or bankruptcy. Even though this law makes it harder for a person to purchase a gun. I feel that these types of laws should be stricter, like making it a ten-day waiting period instead of five.


Thank goodness for some laws that are in affect. But we need to keep in mind that when violence occurs, guns come into effect with angry men or women. To get my point across I used statistics to show you how much domestic violence there is. Over half of the husbands who killed their wives had a criminal record and about 8% legally possessed a firearm. Besides domestic violence there are other kinds of violence that happens with guns such as suicide. Accordingly to statistic, it shows that 1% were caused because of depression and 6.5% was causes from alcoholism or drug addiction. If we make it harder for people to purchase guns we can make these numbers even lower.


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Nonetheless, all of these incidents I previously said could have been stopped if we could have stricter regulations on the control of guns. I do hope each and every one of you tries to help take action on gun control because the presence of guns make it easier to kill. If we all vote together on making our gun laws stricter we can make a difference. Lets try to make the world a lot safer for our families and us. Take action!





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What impact do the mass media have on modern government and politics.

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The mass media is now a global phenomena and has revolutionised the way individuals communicate with each other and receive information. In this essay I will examine the three forms of mass media - newspaper, radio and television - and the way they have evolved. I will explain the three main theories relating to the impact of mass media on the public. I will then discuss how media has altered the emphasis of government at election time and on a day-to-day basis.


The term mass media embraces all kinds of information sources, such as books, pamphlets, mail circulars and films. The three principle sources of political information are however television, radio and newspapers. The mass media is a recent innovation which has reformed the way politics and government operates. Without newspapers, radio and pre-eminently television, the present political system could not work. The media are so omnipotent and all-pervasive we are often unaware of the addictive hold they exert over our attention and the messages they implant in our consciousness on a whole range of matters. Television is widely seen as the most important of the three mediums, and radio the least. In a survey relating to the 18 British election, television was cited as the most important media source by 6% of respondents, newspapers by % and radio by 4%.


Prior to mass media, communications was mainly verbal, between small groups, or by the church or political groups such as the Diggers or Levellers. The first medium to come about was newspapers at the end of the Nineteenth Century. These were largely unregulated and free to offer opinions and be openly biased. By the mid-Twentieth century, radio had begun to take over as the main source of information. Hitler was the first politician to exploit the potential of radio. In the United States and Great Britain, Roosevelt and Baldwin introduced the medium in a more gentle fashion. Radio was the much used medium during the war with things such as Churchills speeches. Television begun to make an appearance during the war, used to show films reinforcing patriotism and resistance. essaybank.co.uk


After the war, television took over as the main medium. Nixons Checkers speech in 15 is seen as the beginning of the television revolution. Ironically, television was Nixons downfall in 160 in the first televised debate, it showed that appearance on television is as important as the message.


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There are three broad arguments concerning the effects of the mass media on the public and therefore government and politics - opinion forming, opinion reinforcing, and no effects. The opinion forming argument believes that the media shape opinions held by the viewer, since the media chooses the agenda, it also shapes what issues are thought about. This view depicts the viewer as having no or few opinions before media exposure and then accepts the arguments and opinions put forward. The opinion reinforcing argument believes that the viewer will be more likely to accept opinions similar to their own, than to change their opinion as a result of the exposure to the media. Persuasive communication functions far more frequently as an agent of reinforcement than as an agent of change. wwge gew esgeges ayge geba nge kcge geuk.


The no effects argument is a minimal effects approach, based on research of the elections in the 140s and 50s. It concludes that change in voting is not compatible with media influence. It appears that this study did little to look at other influences, such as partisanship or an individuals background. wwge gew esgeges ayge geba nge kcge geuk.


The strongest idea seems to be a mixture of reinforcement and opinion forming. In reinforcement theory, when people are exposed to the media reporting of politics, they are more likely to be confirmed in their existing beliefs than to be swayed and take on new ideas. This argument is supplemented by the idea that people are able to filter information. The three characteristics of filtering are selective exposure, selective perception and selective retention. wweg egw esegegs ayeg egba neg kceg eguk.


Selective exposure describes how many people avoid politics altogether, while others interested in politics will favour newspapers, television or radio programmes which reflect rather than challenge their views. Selective perception refers to the views and values which people use to edit information, accepting that which they identify with and rejecting that which they do not. Selective retention is the same process as perception but refers to what people remember. This process of filtering appears most identifiable in those who read newspapers in the United Kingdom, probably because newspapers are seen as the most biased and there is a large selection of them. wwec ecw esececs ayec ecba nec kcec ecuk.


The main distinction between reinforcement theory and the opinion forming argument is to whether a person has any pre-disposed ideas before media influence or if they are tabular rasa - blank, with no preconceptions. The opinion forming argument would state that all individuals must originally receive the information to base opinions on from somewhere - which is the role of the media. It also points out that the reinforcement theory does not seem to make sense in an age when party preferences have weakened and people are voting much more according to issues which they have learnt about through the media. It also asks that if the media only reinforces ideas and cannot form or change opinions, why do political parties persist in spending large sums of money in the media to get elected? Furthermore, why do some states feel it necessary to censor information not consistent with their ideology? Zp8R4 Visit essaybank fc co fc uk fc for more fc Do not fc redistribute Zp8R4


The reinforcement theory argues that people are capable of forming their own ideas based on the filtering process - they will identify with a given idea and then further exposure reinforces it. Individuals are never completely tabular rasa as this filtering process already exists. The political predispositions and group allegiances set the goal; all that is read and heard becomes helpful and effective insofar as it guides the voter to his already chose destination.


Blumler argues that both reinforcing and opinion forming ideas are at work, albeit with different people. He divides people into two categories, those interested in politics and those not. Those with an interest in politics have some underlying party allegiance and so will receive media information and filter out parts they do not agree with. With those with an interest in politics, reinforcement theory is more applicable. Those with no interest in politics are far less likely to have an underlying political allegiance and so will either filter out less or none of the medias message, so they are more responsive to the mass media. The problem for the media is to be able to gain the attention of the uninterested and get them to listen to the ideas. So for example, it can be masqueraded as entertainment or comedy - such as the Red Wedge comedians in the 180s who based their acts on a pro-labour party platform. This type of media is obviously opinion forming in intention but frequently, it is not able to change opinions as it falls on deaf ears. In short, mass communications are an inefficient technique for changing beliefs and behaviour, because, the message tends largely to be received by those who are already sympathetic to it and therefore least in need of change, and, ... for the remainder of the population the message is ignored, crowded out, by other more potent communications. wwbc bcw esbcbcs aybc bcba nbc kcbc bcuk. wwff ffw esffffs ayff ffba nff kcff ffuk.


The questions of why governments spend money on electoral campaigns and why others censor information set in the explanation of opinion forming theory can now be addressed. In response to the former, it seems governments advertise their policies as a way of trying to reach the uninterested or convince interested supporters who may be floating between the two parties and so prepared to listen to any communications. A response to the latter question appears harder. An argument could be made that those interested in hearing the communications are receptive to the information censored and would act if the information was available. Whilst the information is censored, there is no stimulus for action and so the government remains in power. The example of the collapse of the Soviet Union can be used to demonstrate the effects of the mass media being allowed to print what they wish after a long period of censorship. Berlatsky argues that the media held an important role, liberalism began to erode the Soviet system from inside and our press played all but the decisive role in the subsequent emergence of Perestroika. If Burlatskys argument is accepted, then the press was a main cause in the downfall of communism, then Gorbachev and finally the collapse of the Soviet Union. In the Soviet Union, once free from censorship, the press were allowed to print all the ideas and opinions which the public were receptive to but were previously not allowed to have. Following the information being made available, the public acted upon it and enacted change. In this instance, the media formed the opinions of those who did not have previous knowledge and reinforced the beliefs of those who did. This example shows what could occur if the press is not censored by a government who perceive it as a threat. It is interesting to note that during the failed coup of 11, the press were once again censored.


-------------------------------------------------------------The media so far has been portrayed as a passive actor in the political world. It must be remembered that those in the media also have objectives to achieve they must maximise their selling potential to increase profits, they may also subscribe to a particular ideology or set of ideas which it promotes in its reporting. These factors could be seen to lead to the media reporting in a biased way and not been totally impartial and factual. This, if the opinion-forming and reinforcing theories are considered, means that the public will hold views which are skewed without them realising. This point further emphasises the impact that the mass media have on government and politics and the potential it has to alter the outcomes of political events. wwfg fgw esfgfgs ayfg fgba nfg kcfg fguk


If it is accepted that the mass media have an effect on modern government and politics via the opinion forming and reinforcing of ideas, then it is necessary to examine what these effects are. There seems two distinct times to divide government action into at election time, and day-to-day running.


In the United States, electoral campaigning has incorporated audio-visual tools since 15 and has altered the way elections are fought. In 15, Eisenhower employed Thomas Rosser Reeves Jr who was a marketing pioneer. He simplified Ikes message so it was more understandable on the television and radio. He requested that Eisenhower never develop more than one category of arguments in any single speech, press conference or television appearance. Eisenhower also tried to make himself look younger and use speech notes rather than a fully written text. The democrats strategy with Stevenson was to have quantity rather than quality, unfortunately, all his half-hour broadcasts were shown late at night and so not many people ever watched them. The then candidate for the Vice-presidency, Nixon, made the checkers speech and firmly established television as a powerful political medium, wwde dew esdedes ayde deba nde kcde deuk.


156 saw the use of short advertising spots and negative campaigning. Based on the experience of 15 election, this new strategy seemed more appealing to the public and has remained since. 160, and the emergence of a candidate prepared to take acting lessons and a speechwriter, Kennedy came to victory with the model campaign. The first televised debate between Nixon and Kennedy is said by some to have made the difference between Kennedy winning and Nixon not. The first debate was watched by 70-75 million voters, Nixon had a knee inflammation and was physically worn down. Kennedy looked younger, tanned and more at ease on the screen. Nixons make-up also made him look like he had not been bothered to shave. Since Nixon missed the presidency by less than 100,000 votes, a ridiculously narrow margin on the scale of the United States, the first debate has generally been considered as the reason for his failure.


The campaign emphasises a shift from the public voting on issues and taking more notice of presentation and style. This shift to perception together with a simplification of the message can be attributed to the influence of the Mass Media.


The campaigns after 180 have taken on other characteristics such as the use of the photo opportunity - the candidate shown in a particular situation, for example, riding a horse or walking to or from a vehicle. However, the media is becoming more expensive. Since 180, nearly half of federal campaign budgets for presidential elections have been spent on buying television airtime. The reliance on television and its high costs has led the way for the likes of Steve Forbes (16) and Ross Perot (1) to become involved in Presidential elections without having a firm political base (for example, party or faction backing, political experience, or prior knowledge). Wealth has become a barrier to anyone wishing to become elected and a way for the rich to have a go. from www.essaybank.co.uk


Negative campaigning in the 180s went on more, the Bush campaigns of 188 and 1 were, ruthless, relying on vehement negative spots. The aim to deflect attention away from on candidate, and emphasise a trait or past experience of the other candidate which is likely to discourage voters from electing him. Although it worked for Bush in 188, it had less affect against Bill Clinton.


With day-to-day effects of the media, another American example - Ronald Reagan - shows how the right person can adapt and use the media to their advantage. Ronald Reagan was President from 181 until 18 and was the first President to complete the two full terms since Eisenhower (15-161). He came to the post with no experience of Washington, He was an ex-actor, an ex-professional after dinner speaker. He had no direct experience of national government before becoming President, and he had no experience of international politics. His use of photo opportunities, stage managed presentations and speeches broadcast by the media greatly enhanced his popularity and his ability to govern. wwfd fdw esfdfds ayfd fdba nfd kcfd fduk. wwba baw esbabas ayba baba nba kcba bauk.


Richard Neustadt comments that Reagans background in acting, use of charm, ability to appear concerned and dominate conversations with anecdotes which filled up time and prevented heated debates, raised his popularity and prestige with the public. The Great Communicator together with his Director of Communications managed to manipulate the media to their advantage. The advancement of technology, allowing live coverage of any event, allowed Reagan to be packaged in such a way so that he would be shown in a preferential light by the news hungry journalists. He also appealed to the people in prepared speeches, attempting to mobilise the public with varying success; early on having a bigger impact than later on. wwae aew esaeaes ayae aeba nae kcae aeuk;


The media with Reagan appeared to have an immediate impact which diminished over time. Reagans persona and manipulation of the media allowed him to come to power and remain fairly popular. Without the media, it seems hard to imagine the ex-actor gaining power or passing the amount of legislation he managed to do.


The mass media has had an enormous impact on government and politics. It appears that the media reinforces the opinions of some and forms the opinions of others. Using the examples of the USSR and USA, the media can be seen to have a direct impact in the way electoral campaigns are held and the day-to-day running of government. More emphasis is placed on the media by politicians and this leads them to incorporate it into their routine and try to use it to their advantage. The three theories discussed in relation to the effects of the media have different levels of credibility, the no-impact theory appears to lack any value, whereas the opinion-forming and reinforcing can be both argued to work. This has led some like Blumler to conclude that both are working, but on different people. The media has seen a rapid expansion over the last half of the twentieth century, particularly with television, it now shapes how government is presented to the public and therefore forces the government to accept the media and attempt to manipulate it to their advantage. As the example of the USA shows, it has caused speeches to become simpler, more focused on a single issue and be packaged in the correct way. The example of the USSR shows what can occur if the press are allowed to print what they will against a previously oppressive regime. What will occur to the media in the future is not known, but it can be certain that it will continue to have an impact.


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